Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 12, Number 2, April 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
What's Inside: Highlights From This Issue
Mark Durand and Robert L. Koegel
Schoolwide Social-Behavioral Climate, Student Problem Behavior, and Related Administrative Decisions: Empirical Patterns From 1,510 Schools Nationwide
Scott A. Spaulding, Larry K. Irvin, Robert H. Horner, Seth L. May, Monica Emeldi, Tary J. Tobin, and George Sugai
Office discipline referral (ODR) data provide useful information about problem behavior and consequence patterns, social-behavioral climates, and effects of social-behavioral interventions in schools. The authors report patterns of ODRs and subsequent administrative decisions from 1,510 schools nationwide that used the School-Wide Information System in 2005—2006. Sample demographics differed from key demographics for schools nationwide on school enrollment, socioeconomic status, and race and ethnicity. Descriptive analyses showed over 88% of elementary grade students with zero or one ODR for the academic year, 72% for middle schools, and 67% for high schools. ODRs were most likely to be generated from classrooms and more likely to be related to peer-directed problem behavior in elementary schools, student-adult interactions in middle schools, and tardiness and skipping in high schools. Major consequences were suspensions and detentions for middle and high school students and varied for elementary students. The discussion focuses on the utility of ODR databases and implications of the reported patterns.
General Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Behavior Management and Intervention Strategies
Amy Dutton Tillery, Kris Varjas, Joel Meyers, and Amanda Smith Collins
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with kindergarten and first-grade general education teachers to determine their perceptions of student behavior. This study describes the teachers’ perspectives of and approaches to behavior management and intervention strategies (e.g., use of praise, rewards, implementation of classroom management, and knowledge about PBIS and RTI). A unique contribution of this study is the in-depth data that provide specific descriptions of the teachers’ perceptions. Findings indicated that the teachers in this study tended to concentrate more on individual student behavior when describing behavior management strategies than on group or schoolwide behavior. In addition, the teachers were unfamiliar with RTI and PBIS despite training occurring in the system on these initiatives during the study. Lastly, the teachers perceived themselves as strong influences on student behavior development and described the use of positive strategies. Meeting teachers’ training needs for implementation of schoolwide PBIS and topics for future research are discussed.
The Use of Video Modeling via a Video iPod and a System of Least Prompts to Improve Transitional Behaviors for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the General Education Classroom
David Cihak, Cynthia Fahrenkrog, Kevin M. Ayres, and Catherine Smith
This study evaluated the efficacy of video modeling delivered via a handheld device (video iPod) and the use of the system of least prompts to assist elementary-age students with transitioning between locations and activities within the school. Four students with autism learned to manipulate a handheld device to watch video models. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to evaluate a functional relation between video modeling and the percentage of independent transitions by the student. The data indicate that all participants began transitioning more independently after the intervention was introduced and that their performance decreased with withdrawal of intervention. These results are presented in the context of how a portable video delivery system can aid students who spend considerable portions of their day in general education settings where traditional means of delivering video models (e.g., televisions and computers) may not be as accessible.
Teaching Generalized Imitation Skills to a Preschooler With Autism Using Video Modeling
Vickie Kleeberger and Pat Mirenda
This study examined the effectiveness of video modeling to teach a preschooler with autism to imitate previously mastered and not mastered actions during song and toy play activities. A general case approach was used to examine the instructional universe of preschool songs and select exemplars that were most likely to facilitate generalization. Experimental control was evident in a multiple baseline design across three imitation activities. In addition to video modeling, additive components that included highlighting critical features of the video examples, prompting/fading, and social reinforcement were required to demonstrate a functional relationship. The results also showed generalized imitative performance to actions that were not previously mastered. The findings suggest that general case analysis, video modeling, and additive procedures can be combined to both teach new imitative behaviors and promote generalization of previously-mastered behaviors. The results are discussed with reference to future research directions and implications for practice in educational settings.