Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 14, Number 2, April 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
The Relationship Between Principal Leadership Skills and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: An Exploratory Study
Mary Miller Richter, Timothy J. Lewis, and John Hagar
This study investigated key principal leadership skills associated with socially proactive school environments and examined the relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation and increased evidence of those skills. Findings indicated the following: (a) certified staff members and principals from all schools rated the importance of each of the 31 skills as high; (b) principals in SWPBS schools received significantly higher ratings associated with behavior management effectiveness; and (c) principals from SWPBS and non-PBS schools received relatively equivalent ratings in regard to transformational and managerial skills. SWPBS-certified staff respondents indicated statistically significantly greater rates of job satisfaction than did those in non-PBS schools. Implications for future research are discussed.
Factors Associated With South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies
Yeon Ha Kim and Melissa Stormont
This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators’ strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers’ strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment. Among the four types of behaviors, redirection was most frequently implemented and behavioral-specific praise was least frequently implemented. Children taught by teachers with higher education levels and stronger beliefs in developmentally appropriate practices displayed lower levels of behavior problems. Teachers’ developmentally inappropriate beliefs and severity of behavior problems of children were associated with teachers’ use of reprimands. Implications of these findings and limitations of the study are discussed.
Behavior Support Interventions Implemented by Families of Young Children: Examination of Contextual Fit
Tara W. McLaughlin, Maria K. Denney, Patricia A. Snyder, and Jill L. Welsh
Families are increasingly involved in the implementation of behavior support interventions to promote positive behaviors of young children in everyday family settings. Contextual fit, described as congruence between the behavior support intervention and the values, skills, resources, and routines of those who will implement the intervention, has been associated with the effectiveness and sustainability of the intervention. We analyzed studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions from 1999 to 2009 in which families of young children ages 3 through 8 years implemented behavior support interventions. As part of this review, we examined information reported about contextual fit. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were coded using an investigator-developed protocol. Findings revealed that researchers generally reported information about collaborative partnerships with families. Information about family ecology, cultural and linguistic background, family perspectives about the intervention, and family quality of life were not reported in the majority of studies reviewed. Recommendations related to future reporting practices and research focused on contextual fit are discussed.
A Survey of Preschool Staff Concerning Problem Behavior and Its Prevention in Head Start Classrooms
Martha E. Snell, Rebecca A. Berlin, Mary D. Voorhees, Tina L. Stanton-Chapman, and Sarah Hadden
We examined the self-reported practices of Head Start personnel toward children’s problem behavior in order to design an intervention for preschool personnel that was compatible with their needs. This study involved 78 Head Start staff from five programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Participants were asked to respond to four questions concerning their practices for addressing their students’ problem behaviors. We found that survey respondents (a) listed externalizing behaviors as the predominant challenging behavior, (b) identified prevention and replacement methods for addressing problem behavior, (c) indicated that families of children with challenging behavior were involved in intervention planning and implementation, and (d) reported a need for additional training on classroom management and positive behavior support. Participants also were asked to respond to four conflict scenarios that were designed to measure how teachers would handle problem behavior situations. The majority of participants’ responses received a medium rating on a scale of low, medium, or high. Implications of these findings for preschool programs were discussed in terms of professional development and improved needs assessment measures.
Use of Interview and Observation to Clarify Reported Practices of Head Start Staff Concerning Problem Behavior: Implications for Programs and Training
Martha E. Snell, Mary D. Voorhees, Rebecca A. Berlin, Tina L. Stanton-Chapman, Sarah Hadden, and Jane McCarty
This study used interviews and classroom observation to follow up a survey of 78 Head Start staff from five programs in the mid-Atlantic region. The purpose of the study was to collect additional details about administrator and staff needs in regard to addressing children’s challenging behavior in order to design a PBS in-service intervention. Interviews were conducted with 45 adults from the same preschool sample, and direct observation occurred in 10 classrooms. Similar to prior survey results, it was found that interview respondents (a) listed externalizing behaviors as the predominant challenging behavior, (b) identified prevention and replacement methods for addressing problem behavior, and (c) indicated that families of children with challenging behavior were given opportunities to be involved in intervention planning and implementation. However, interview and observation results further exposed the use of reactive practices and revealed five primary barriers to addressing children’s challenging behavior. Finally, interview respondents reported that all programs had defined procedures they followed when children exhibited challenging behavior that in most programs was based on a traditional, child-focused, mental health approach rather than on a comprehensive systems approach like positive behavior support.
Teacher Well-Being and the Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
Scott W. Ross, Natalie Romer, and Robert H. Horner
Teacher well-being has become a major issue in the United States with increasing diversity and demands across classrooms and schools. With this in mind, the current study analyzed the relationship between outcomes of teacher well-being, including burnout and efficacy, and the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Using a multilevel regression approach, the surveys of 184 teachers across 40 elementary schools were analyzed at individual and school levels. Results indicated that teachers in schools implementing SWPBIS with fidelity had significantly lower levels of burnout and significantly higher levels of efficacy. In addition, an interaction effect implied that teachers benefited most from SWPBIS implementation in schools of low socioeconomic status. Limitations of the study are discussed and directions for future interventions and research are recommended.