Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 2, Number 1, Winter 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Glen Dunlap & Robert L. Koegel
The Use of Video Priming to Reduce Disruptive Transition Behavior in Children with Autism
Laura Schreibman, Christina Whalen, and Aubyn C. Stahmer
This study investigated the use of video priming, or exposure, as a means for reducing or eliminating the disruptive behavior of children with autism in transition situations. Specifically, it was hypothesized that such disruptive behavior would be reduced if the children received prior priming to upcoming transitions. Three children with autism who demonstrated severely disruptive behavior during transitions viewed short videos of specific transition situations in which parents reported behavioral difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across participants showed that the implementation of the video priming procedure led to a reduction or elimination of the disruptive behavior. Further, behavior reductions generalized to new transition situations. The results are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms responsible for treatment effects and the potential advantages of using video interventions with this population.
Teaching Staff to Provide Choice Opportunities for Adults with Multiple Disabilties
Mary Salmento and Linda M. Bambara
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a staff training package on staff members' ability to present single-stimulus choice opportunities in daily routines for four adults with profound mental retardation and severe physical disabilities. A multiple baseline across staff member/adult dyads was used to evaluate the effects of a three-component training package involving a consultation meeting, in vivo training using modeling and practice sessions, and feedback on the behavior of staff members and adults. Results showed an increase in the number of choices provided by the staff members and the number of choices made by the adults with disabilities. The changes in staff member behavior and adult responses were maintained immediately following training and at 1 and 3 month follow ups. Generalization data showed increased choice opportunities during the lunch routine with the same adult and during the dressing and grooming routine with another adult. Advantages of structuring choice opportunities using single-stimulus presentations are discussed.
Essential Elements of Inservice Training in Positive Behavioral Support
Glen Dunlap, Meme Hieneman, Tim Knoster, Lise Fox, Jacki Anderson, and Richard W. Albin
Positive behavior support is an effective and proactive approach for resolving serious problem behaviors that has been recommended by a growing number of professionals, advocates, policies, and laws. Building the capacity of educators and other professionals to provide positive behavior support is a vital concern as schools and community agencies serve increasingly diverse populations that include children and youth with disabilities and problem behaviors. This article describes issues and essential elements for building such capacity through inservice training. A core curriculum is outlined, and a national exemplar of comprehensive inservice training is described. Essential features of training that are needed for the development of practical skills are discussed.
Analysis of Multiple Variables Related to a Young Child's Aggressive Behavior
Kwang-Sun Blair, John Umbreit, and Susan Eck
This study examined whether multiple antecedent and consequent variables, when arranged in different combinations, would differentially affect the likelihood that problem and/or appropriate behaviors would occur. Juan, age four, engaged in a variety of aggressive behaviors during free-play activities at a childcare program. A descriptive assessment that included structured interviews and observations was conducted, and a series of assessment conditions were designed and implemented using a multi-element design. The initial assessment conditions examined the impact of the ratio of toys to peers during free-play activities. When there was an unfavorable ratio, that is, when there were few toys but many peers, aggressive behaviors occurred at a very high rate. When the ratio improved so that there were enough toys for each child, the rate of aggressive behavior dropped dramatically. During subsequent conditions, specific social skills were first taught and then prompted and reinforced, and occurrences of aggressive behavior were ignored. During these sessions, aggressive behaviors were virtually nonexistent and the use of appropriate social behavior by the children increased. Perhaps most important, this result obtained even when there was an unfavorable ratio of toys to peers.
Using an Assessment of Family Context to Inform Intervention Planning for the Treatment of Challenging Behavior in a Child with Autism
Doug R. Moes and William D. Frea
Children with autism often engage in problem behavior that can be highly disruptive to ongoing family practices and routines. This case study demonstrated child and family outcomes related to two distinct treatment approaches for challenging behavior (prescriptive vs. contextualized) within a family raising a child with autism. The processes of behavior change directed either solely by the interventionist (prescriptive) or in collaboration with the family (contextualized) were compared. The family directed intervention involved an assessment of family context (i.e., via discussion of daily routines) to inform the design of a behavioral support plan. Information gathered from the assessment of family routines was used to (a) help select specific behavioral strategies that were compatible with family characteristics and preferences, and (b) construct teaching methods that fit with the family's ongoing practices, routines, and interaction goals. More favorable results (i.e., reductions in challenging behavior, an increase in on-task behavior) were observed within the contextualized treatment phase than were observed within the prescriptive treatment phase. The procedures and results are discussed in relation to an emerging literature documenting the importance of contextualizing behavioral supports applied within family settings.
Case Demonstration of a "Fading" Procedure as a Method of Antecedent Control to Promote School Attendance of a Child with Asperger's Syndrome
James K. Luiselli
A 5-year old girl with Asperger's Disorder experienced agitation when required to separate from her mother following entry into a preschool classroom at a public elementary school. As part of a nonexperimental case demonstration, an intervention plan was developed to promote school attendance by first, having the girl's mother be present continuously in the classroom and then, scheduling the mother to be out of the classroom for progressively longer durations that were introduced along a "fading" sequence. Results were that the girl learned to remain in the classroom without agitation and to participate fully in her educational program, with positive adjustment maintained during a post-intervention period. Components of the intervention plan, and recommendations to improve the empirical evaluation of antecedent control approaches that incorporate "fading" procedures, are discussed.
Understanding the Difference and Relationship Between Manifestation Determinations and Functional Behavioral Assessment Timothy P. Knoster
Two of the new requirements in IDEA '97 are to conduct Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) and Manifestation Determinations under certain circumstances. It is important to understand the difference and relationship between these two distinct team-based assessment processes because they both occur in response to a student's problem behavior. Guidance and literature continue to emerge about FBA, but little has been published to date concerning Manifestation Determinations. In light of the clear need in the field for guidance on both types of assessment, this article begins to articulate the difference and relationship between FBA and Manifestation Determinations. In addressing this need, a team-based process known as the Manifestation Determination Checklist: A Tool for IEP Teams is highlighted. Sample questions from this instrument are presented with insights and guidance provided for school based practitioners.
Some Winning Combinations
John D. Baldwin and Janice I. Baldwin