Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 2, Number 2, Spring 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Incorporating Children with Autism's Thematic Ritualistic Behaviors into Games to Increase Social Play Interactions
Mary J. Baker
This study systematically investigated an intervention increasing sibling social play interadctions by incorporating the thematic ritualistic activities of children with autism into typical games. Data collected revealed very low levels of sibling play, joint attention, and affect during the baseline condition and high levels of thematic ritualistic behaviors. In contrast, when the chilrdren with autism were taught a play interaction based on their thematic ritualistic behavior (e.g., for a child who perseverated on movies, incorporating the theme into a Bingo-style game), the percentage of social interactions and joint attention increased and maintained in 1- and 3-month follow-up measures. All of the children's affect improved, and the rate of thematic ritualistic behaviors decreased to a minimum or no occurrence. The children's social interactions also generalized to other games and settings. These results imply that children with autism can learn social skills through play and natural interactions in their environment.
Functional Assessment and Intervention for Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom by Regular Classroom Teachers
Sherry A. Ellingson, Raymond G. Miltenberger, Jason Stricker, Tami L. Galensky, and Matthew Garlinghouse
This study assessed teachers' abilities to conduct functional assessments and functional interventions in the classroom setting with students who had developmental disabilities and behavior problems. The results showed that information on antecedents and consequences was consistent when derived from a structured behavioral questionnaire completed by the teacher or when the questionnaire was administered in an interview format by a behavior analyst. Although raters agreed on the hypothesized function of problem behaviors of three students with disabilities based on information from the questionnaire and interview, behavioral functions hypothesized by separate raters for the questionnaire and interview varied for one student, indicating problems with interrater reliability. Results also revealed that teachers without specialized training in applied behavior analysis are able to carry out direct observations of behavior problems, antecedents, and consequences, and produce information on antecedents and consequences comparable to that of graduate students with 2 years of training in applied behavior analysis. Lastly, implementation of functional and nonfunctional interventions (likely to be implemented in typical classrooms) provided support for the hypothesized functions from both indirect and direct methods of assessment.
Modified Incidental Teaching Sessions : A Procedure for Parents to Increase Spontaneous Speech in Their Children with Autism Marjorie Charlop-Christy and Michael Carpenter
In this study, traditional incidental teaching was modified and a new naturalized parent training speech program, modified incidental teaching sessions (MITS), was designed. We then compared the efficacy of MITS with traditional incidental teaching and discrete trial. Using a multiple baseline design across and within children, with an alternating treatments design, we examined both the acquistion and, more importantly, generalization of target phrases for MITS as well as the comparison mehods. Parents of three children with autism were trained to deliver MITS, traditional discrete trial, and incidental teaching in thier home. Results indicated that MITS led to acquisition for all children, whereas only one child acquired the behavior with traditional incidental teaching, and two children acquired the behavior with discrete trial. Importantly, MITS also led to the generalization of target phrases, whereas no children generalized the target phrases with the incidental teaching and discrete trial conditions. These promising results are discussed in terms of maximizing the effectiveness of incidental teaching and the potential to provide naturalistic teaching strategies for parents that are associated with rapid and durable treatment gains.
Improving the Quality of Support to Families of Children with Severe Behavior Problems in the First Decade of the New Millenium
Joseph M. Lucyshyn, E. Richard Blumberg, and Anne T. Kayser
What do Families Need?
Improving Support for Families: An Agenda for the Next Decade
Albert J. Duchnowski
Celebrate the Positive, Eliminate the Negative
Claire M. Chapman
Ripple or Tidal Wave: What Can Make a Difference?
George H.S. Singer
Ursula Arceneaux Markey
Achieving "Rich" Lifestyles
Ann and Rud Turnbull