Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
Choice of Task Sequence to Reduce Problem Behaviors
Lee Kern, Michelle E. Mantegna, Christina M. Vorndran, Deborah Bailin, and Alexandra Hilt
Choice making has proven to be an effective intervention for reducing problem behavior and increasing appropriate behavior. Some researchers have argued that providing opportunities for choice results in an option that the individual prefers. Thus, the efficacy of providing oppotunities is related to the reinforcing value of the selection. Other researchers suggest that choice may have reinforcement value independent of, or in addition to, the selection made. This study sought to further examine the mechanism accounting for the influence of choice on behavior. Participants were three individuals with a variety of diagnoses and problem behaviors. Each individual engaged in problematic behavior during task situations. Intervention consisted of providing the individuals a choice of the sequence in which tasks were completed. The intervention resulted in imporved behavior for each participant. In addition to supporting the notion that choice making itself may be reinforcing, this study illustrates a practical, effective approach for increasing desirable behavior and decreasing problematic behavior.
IDEA Requirements for Use of PBS: Guidelines for Responsible Agencies
H. Rutherfod Turnbull III, Brennan L. Wilcox, Matthew Stowe, and Ann P. Turnbull
Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBS) is the federal law's preferred strategy for dealing with challenging behaviors of students with disabilities. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires PBS to be considered in all cases of students whose behavior impedes their learning or the learning of others, reflecting IDEA's preference for use of state-of-the-art technology in special education. This article explains the legal ramifications of these requirements for responsible agencies, including schools boards, other local educational agencies, and state educational agencies.
Naturalistic Assessment of and Intervention for Mouthing Behaviors Influenced by Establishing Operations
Sharon Lohrmann-O'Rourke and Beth Yurman
This study provides an example of an innovative practice for the assessment and intervention of mouthing behaviors influenced by an establishing operation. The participant was a 6-year-old boy with multiple disabilities who was attending a self-contained class in his local school. A functional analysis embedded with five activities(i.e., alone time, task demand, play, circle, and eating) during the classsroom's typical routine was conducted. Results of the functional analysis suggested mouthing was maintained by multiple functions and most frequently occurred during the alone time, circle time, and task demand activities. The functional analysis also revelaed that the participant was more likely to mouth in the presence of an establishing operation (i.e., sinus infection). Preferred items were noncontingently offered using an antecedent choice intervention. Ongoing choices of preferred items resulted in reductions in mouthing, even in the presence of the establishing operation.
A Family in Crisis: Replacing the Aggressive Behavior of a Child with Autism Toward Infant Sibling
Leasha M. Barry and George H. S. Singer
As a means of managing a 10-year-old child with autism's aggressive behavior toward his infant sibling in a home setting, the use of clinician-implemented skill training of replacement behavior and clinician fading with self-management of replacement behaviors was examined. This study exemplifies a specific circumstance when a clinician-implemented treatment is useful in ameliorating emotionally charged family circumstances in which parent training is not possible. A single-case design (noncurrent multiple basleine across behavior) was used to evaluate performance. The longitudinal nature of the study reflects the moving target of problem behaviors that emerged as the infant developed an increasingly complex repertoire of skills over time. After emploiying skill training, the researchers found a decrease in the orcurrence of aggressive behavior, an increase in the percentage of intervals in which replacement behaviors occurred, and an increase in the duration of sibling interactions. As a result, the family decided to keep their child with autism at home.
Supporting Positive Behavior in Public Schools: An Intervention Program in Georgia
Marty L. Smith and L. Juane Heflin
The Behavioral Intervention Program (BIP), a project funded by the state of Georgia since 1991, provides community-based technical assistance to school systems for students with developmental disabilities and severe problem behaviors. The BIP's model of assistance embraces a proactive team approach to address the needs of identified students and is based on a functional perspective of behavior. Outcomes of the program have included reduced rates of impeding behavior, increased student learning of alternative behaviors, and decreased use of restrictive strategies in students' intervention plans. The success of this approach is attributed to collaborative team training, the availability of expertise in functional technology, the use of proactive interventions, and a focus on meaningful outcomes that enhance lifestyle changes for individuals served.
Variable Structure/Variable Performance: Parent and Teacher Perspectives on a School-Age Child with FAS
Geralyn R. Timler and Lesley B. Olswang
Families of children with alcohol-related disabilities report difficulty choosing the most appropriate educational support services for their children. A case study of a school-age boy with a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is presented to explore the parent's and teacher's viewpoints about the best educational program for him. During open-ended interviews, the child's mother and teacher described his strengths and challenges differently, ultimately leading to disagreement about the most appropriate educational placement and supports for this child. Analysis of these interviews indicated that differences in environmental sturcture and adult expectations for child behavior across the home and school settings are one likely source for these diverse viewpoints. These results suggest that intervention planning must take into account this child's variations in performance across contexts. Recommendations for positive behavioral supports are provided to facilitate the child's performance across home and school settings.
Using an Activity Schedule to Smooth School Transitions
Pamela Dooley, Felicia L. Wilczenski, and Christopher Torem
Functional assessment of a preschool child's aggressive and disruptive behaviors identified antecedent conditions associated with difficulties during transitions from one activity to another at school. Antecedent condtions and functional communication were addressed in the behavior plan using a schedule board based on the Picture Exchange Communication System. A dramatic decrease in aggression and increase in cooperative behavior in the classroom was observed.
Winning Over the Resistant Teacher
Joe E. Morin