Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 3, Number 2, Spring 2001
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
The Effects of an Accelerated Parent Education Program on Technique Mastery and Child Outcome: Program Demonstration Aubyn C. Stahmer and Kristin Gist
Training parents of children with autism as treatment providers for their own children is now understood to be an essential component of successful treatment programs. Although most parent training programs have been successful overall in teaching parents to use specific techniques, they are often time consuming and costly, and some parents continue to have difficulty learning and implementing techniques at home. The current project assessed the addition of a parent education/support group to an accelerated parent training for a period of 12 weeks. One group also attended a weekly parent education/support group. Parent mastery of the parent training techniques and children's language skills were assessed before and after training. Results indicate that inclusion of a parent education/support group in a parent training program may increase parent mastery of teaching techniques and success of accelerated programming and in turn, increase children's language success. Limitations and implications of this clinical research study are discussed.
Identification of Competing Reinforcers for Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement Michelle M. Roberts-Gwinn
LeAnn Luiten, K. Mark Derby, Tania A. Johnson, and Kimberly Weber
A four-phase investigation was completed to reduce aberrant behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. During Phase 1, a brief functional analysis was conducted to determine the maintaining contingencies for aberrant behavior displayed by an 11-year-old autistic male. The results of this analysis suggested that aberrant behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement. During Phase 2, the participant was exposed to a series of different types of sensory stimuli (i.e., kinesthetic, auditory, and visual). Non-contingent exposure to kinesthetic stimuli was shown to decrease aberrant behavior to near zero levels. Conversely, non-contingent exposure to auditory and visual stimuli did not decrease aberrant behavior. This combination of results suggested that non-contingent access to kinesthetic stimuli competed with the reinforcing effects of aberrant behavior. We hypothesized that, if this is the case, kinesthetic stimuli should also contain reinforcing properties for the acquisition of a competing response topography. This hypothesis was evaluated during Phases 3 and 4, in which contingent access to kinesthetic stimuli was shown to increase a competing response topography during short and long-term treatment.
Positive Behavioral Support: A School-Wide Example
Terrance M. Scott
Without prevention strategies, schools can expect to observe behavioral difficulties across greater than 20% of the school population, Using school-wide systems of positive behavioral support, schools can decrease the number of problem behaviors by students, proving a clearer focus for intervention on the students with the greatest support needs. This paper presents a case example of school-wide positive behavioral support, including its planning, implementation, and outcomes. The entire process of creating school-wide teams, determining actions, and developing consensus is described in detail with specific examples. Outcomes of school-elected dependent variables indicate large decreases in the number of students excluded from the classroom learning environment for problem behaviors. Details of specific problems and issues are discussed with examples.
Assessing Capacity for Statewide Implementation of Positive Behavior Supports: A Needs Assessment Strategy
Patrick Shannon, Denise Daly, Anne Malatchi, Connie Kvarfordt, and Tera Yoder
The purpose of this article is to describe a process for assessing statewide capacity for integrating Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) into the policies and practices of service delivery systems that provide support for individuals with developmental disabilities who present challenge behaviors. A multi-component needs assessment process was conducted to assess the capacity of systems that provide services individuals who present challenging behaviors in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The assessment process was designed to uncover this information using a seven-step procedure that incorporated qualitative and quantitative date collection strategies. Three inter-related studies were conducted to assess the use of Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) and PBS-related training needs across Virginia's service delivery systems (i.e., early intervention, school and adult). Results of these studies indicate a need for comprehensive training, refresher training, and improved collaboration among providers across Virginia's service delivery systems.
Preparing Teachers and Consultants for the Challenge of Severe Problem Behavior
Robert E. O'Neill, Jesse W. Johnson, Richard Kiefer-O'Donnell, and John J. McDonnell
Concern about student behavior and violence in schools has rapidly become an area of critical local and national concern in the recent years. Teachers and schools are being expected to cope with increasing student diversity along many dimensions, including cognitive and intellectual functioning, ethnic and linguistic background, and problem behavior. School personnel will need the expertise to be able to effectively support teachers and other practitioners working with students with different labels and challenges (developmental disabilities, emotional/behavioral disorders), and to be able to work at multiple levels (classroom, school, community). This paper describes the Comprehensive Behavior Specialist (CBS) program, which is aimed at developing such expertise among teachers and other practitioners within school and community systems. The rationale, basic content, and organization of the program are described. Positive evaluation data are presented from two cohorts of school personnel who have experienced the program.
Supporting the Sexuality of Adults with Mental Retardation: Current Status and Future Directions
Vicki A. Lumley and Joseph R. Scotti
Historically, individuals with mental retardation have not enjoyed the sexual freedom afforded to individuals without disabilities. Although progress has been made, there is much room for improvement. This paper suggests a comprehensive approach to supporting the sexuality of adults with mental retardation. A discussion of traditional sex education programs is provided, followed by recommendations for building on this approach. Specifically, individualized assessment and programs, to be conducted within the framework of a person-centered planning approach, is proposed. This approach enlists significant persons in the target individual's life, including family and formal care providers, who can serve as supports. Finally, the support role of agencies providing services to individuals with mental retardation is discussed.