Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 10, Number 1, Winter 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert H. Horner and Robert L. Koegel
Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) programs.
Bruce A. Blonigen, William Harbaugh, Larry Singell, Robert H. Horner, Larry K. Irvin, and Keith Smolkowski.
The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating educational programs. The authors also describe the specific data and measurement and analytic procedures that cost analysis evaluation requires. The concepts are then applied in a case study showing a cost analysis of SWPBS. Implications are provided for extending the cost analysis case study into evaluation of cost-effectiveness and/or cost-benefit economic analyses of program success.
Building district-level capacity for positive behavior support.
Heather Peshak George and Donald K. Kincaid.
As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues. Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources and supports needed to implement and sustain such district-wide systems change efforts and build an infrastructure to support SWPBS initiatives. The purpose of this article is to expand upon School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Implementers' Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai et al., 2005) by describing the how-to of the SWPBS implementation process with specific activities and providing user-friendly tools that can assist a district in "going to scale." Obstacles to and future considerations for expanding the practice of SWPBS are also presented.
Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist: Teachers and Staff (FACTS) FBA interview measure.
Kent McIntosh, Chris Borgmeier, Cynthia M. Anderson, Robert H. Horner, Billie Jo Rodriguez, and Tary J. Tobin.
With the recent increase in the use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) in school settings, there has been an emphasis in practice on the development and use of effective, efficient methods of conducting FBAs, particularly indirect assessment tools such as interviews. There are both benefits and drawbacks to these tools, and their technical adequacy is often unknown. This article presents a framework for assessing the measurement properties of FBA interview tools and uses this framework to assess evidence for reliability and validity of one interview tool, the Functional Assessment Checklist: Teachers and Staff (FACTS; March et al., 2000). Results derived from 10 research studies using the FACTS indicate strong evidence of test-retest reliability and interobserver agreement, moderate to strong evidence of convergent validity with direct observation and functional analysis procedures, strong evidence of treatment utility, and strong evidence of social validity. Results are discussed in terms of future validation research for FBA methods and tools.
The effects of a targeted intervention to reduce problem behaviors: Elementary school implementation of Check In-Check Out.
Anne W. Todd, Amy L. Cambell, Gwen G. Meyer, and Robert H. Horner.
Behavior support in schools is increasingly viewed as a three-tier prevention effort in which universal interventions are used for primary prevention, targeted interventions are used for secondary prevention, and intensive interventions are used for tertiary prevention. A growing body of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of targeted interventions in decreasing the frequency of problem behaviors. The Check In-Check Out Program (CICO) is becoming a recognized targeted intervention. The present study examines if there is a functional relation between the implementation of CICO and a reduction in problem behaviors. Results indicate that implementation of CICO with four elementary school-age boys was functionally related to a reduction in problem behavior. Clinical and conceptual implications of these results, methodological limitations, and future research directions are reviewed.
Implementing visually cued imitation training with children with autism spectrum disorders and developmental delays.
Jennifer B. Ganz, Bethany C. Bourgeois, Margaret M. Flores, and B. Adriana Campos.
Clearly, imitation is linked to a variety of skill areas. As a result, children with autism and developmental delays are less likely than their typical peers to perform well in many areas of development, including play and speech. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple, teacher-friendly strategy could be implemented that would affect peer imitation skills in children with autism spectrum and developmental disorders. A single-subject multiple baseline design was applied across four participants to determine the impact of a multicomponent visually cued imitation strategy. Results indicated that participants' imitation skills increased and reliance on physical prompts decreased. The results are discussed in terms of the amount of imitation that occurred, the level of prompts used, and the activities engaged in.
A descriptive analysis of intervention research published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: 1999 through 2005. Shelley Clarke and Glen Dunlap.
The Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions (JPBI) has been publishing reports of empirical intervention research since 1999, with a commitment to serve as a vehicle for dissemination of data and perspectives pertinent to positive behavior support (PBS). PBS is distinguished by an emphasis on certain features of interventions, such as ecological and social validity. The current analysis was undertaken as an effort to describe the characteristics of intervention research published in JPBI from 1999 through 2005 and to provide a comparison with other peer-reviewed journals that publish a large number of articles reporting intervention research with children and youth with disabilities. The data indicate that JPBI has been publishing research with comparatively high levels of ecological validity, social validity, and assessment-based interventions. The authors note other distinctive aspects of JPBI's publication record and discuss the data with respect to the current and future character of PBS research.
It may be nonaversive, but is it a positive approach? Relevant questions to ask throughout the process of behavioral assessment and intervention.
Nancy Weiss and Tim Knoster.
It is important for people involved in the art and science of behavior change to reflect on the ethical issues inherent in this work. It is recommended that a series of questions be thoughtfully addressed when a functional behavior assessment is conducted and subsequent interventions and supports are designed. Specifically, the following questions should be considered: does the person have opportunities to express opinions and to control his or her life through meaningful choices?; what needs does the person address through his or her problem behavior?; how will our actions positively influence the person's quality of life?; how have the people who know and care about the person participated in the process?; how will the approach that is used affect the people implementing the procedures and others?; would you use the interventions selected with a family member or friend?; and how will the behavioral interventions minimize the likelihood of crisis? Asking these questions can help to assure that behavioral interventions enhance the quality of people's lives and can help to reduce the emergence of crisis situations.