Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 10, Number 3, July 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert H. Horner and Robert L. Koegel
Todd R. Risley (1937-2007)
Glen Dunlap and John R. Lutzker
The utilization and effects of positive behavior support strategies on an urban school playground.
Kate Franzen and Debra Kamps.
Rates of problem behavior at urban elementary school playgrounds are of growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine how the implementation of a recess intervention within the context of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SwPBS), a systemwide, team-driven, data-based decision-making continuum of support, affected disruptive student behavior and teacher supervision on the playground in an urban elementary school. Specifically, this study replicated investigations conducted by Lewis and colleagues through teaching recess-related behaviors to students and using group contingencies to reinforce appropriate student behaviors. A multiple baseline design was used to assess the effects of SwPBS on the frequency of five target behaviors. Results indicated decreases in disruptive behaviors across three grade levels and increases in active teacher supervision.
Using computer-presented social stories and video models to increase the social communication skills of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.
Frank J. Sansosti and Kelly A. Powell-Smith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of computer-presented Social Stories and video models on the social communication skills of three children with High-Functioning Autism/ Asperger's Syndrome (HFA/ AS). Using a multiple-baseline across-participants design, computer-presented Social Stories and video models were implemented and direct observations of the participants' identified target behaviors were collected two times per week during unstructured school activities (e.g., recess). Overall, data demonstrated that the combined treatment package was effective for improving the rates of social communication for the participants, although modifications to allow access to social reinforcement were needed in two cases. In addition, all three participants demonstrated maintenance of skills at a 2-week follow-up. However, generalization of skills was only observed for one participant. This research adds evidence that a combined intervention presented via computer may be a beneficial method for remediating social skill difficulties for individuals with HFA/ AS.
Effects of training on the use of the behavior support plan quality evaluation guide with autism educators: A preliminary investigation examining positive behavior support plans.
Bonnie R. Kraemer, Clayton R. Cook, Diana Browning-Wright, G. Roy Mayer, and Michele D. Wallace.
Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are required practice for students whose behaviors impede their learning or that of others. Educators of children and youth with autism and other developmental disorders represent a subgroup of special educators who are frequently involved in the development of PBS plans. The goal of this research was to assess the effect of a specific, brief training delivered to improve the substantive, evidence-based quality of PBS plans developed by autism educators in a graduate-level university program. Intra-individual tests of significance revealed that the training significantly improved the quality of PBS plans. The plan components with the highest ratings were predictors of problem behavior and behavioral definition, whereas the components with the lowest ratings were behavioral goals/ objectives and team communication. The implications for delivering brief trainings to improve evidence-based practice, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.
Positive behavioral interventions and supports in new hampshire: Effects of large-scale implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support on student discipline and academic achievement.
Howard S. Muscott, Eric L. Mann, and Marcel R. LeBrun.
This evaluation report presents outcomes for the first cohort of 28 early childhood education programs and K-12 schools involved in implementing schoolwide positive behavior support as part of a statewide systems change initiative that began in New Hampshire in 2002. Results indicate that the overwhelming majority of schools were able to implement schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports with fidelity within 2 years and to sustain implementation over the course of the following year. Implementation resulted in a reduction of 6,010 office discipline referrals and 1,032 suspensions, with middle and high schools experiencing the most benefit. These reductions helped recover 864 days of teaching, 1,701 days of learning, and 571 days of leadership. Implementation was associated with academic gains in math for the vast majority of schools who implemented with fidelity. Improvements in reading/ language arts were less pervasive. Recommendations for policy, practice, and research are discussed.