Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 4, Number 1, Winter 2002
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science
Edward G. Carr, Glen Dunlap, Robert H. Horner, Robert L. Koegel, Ann P. Turnbull, Wayne Sailor, Jacki Anderson, Richard W. Albin, Lynn K. Koegel, and Lise Fox
Positive behavior support (PBS) is an applied science that uses educational and systems change methods (environmental redesign) to enhance quality of life and minimize problem behavior. PBS initially evolved within the field of developmental disabilities and emerged from three major sources: applied behavior analysis, the normalization/inclusion movement, and person-centered values. Although elements of PBS can be found in other approaches, its uniqueness lies in the fact that it integrates these nine critical features into a cohesive whole: comprehensive lifestyle change, a lifespan perspective, ecological validity, stakeholder participation, social validity, systems change/multicomponent intervention, emphasis on prevention, flexibility in scientific practices, and multiple theoretical perspectives. These characteristics are likely to produce future evolution of PBS with respect to assessment practices, intervention strategies, training, and extension to new populations. The approach reflects a more general trend in the social sciences and education away from pathology-based models to a new positive model that stresses personal competence and environmental integrity.
Effects of Within-Activity Choices on the Challenging Behavior of Children with Severe Developmental Disabilities
Christine L. Cole and Tara R. Levinson
This study compared the effects of using verbal directives or choice questions within instructional routines on the challenging behaviors of students with developmental disabilities. Two children with severe cognitive impairments who were typically uncooperative and aggressive during instructional routines participated in the study. Using ABAB designs, results indicated overall decreases in challenging behavior for both students during the choice condition as compared with the traditional verbal directive (no choice) condition. Further, the use of choice questions resulted in increased number of steps completed prior to the onset of challenging behavior during daily instructional routines for these students. For the one student who seldom independently initiated steps of the routine, the introduction of the choice condition coincided an increase in independent initiations, although high levels continued for the remainder of the study. These results are discussed in light of the continuing search for simple, nonintrusive, and effective curricular interventions for children who engage in serious problem behavior.
Family-Centered Intervention to Resolve Problem Behaviors in a Fast Food Restaurant: A Case Example
Bobbie Vaughn, Diane Wilson and Glen Dunlap
Problem behaviors in public contexts can be a significant problem for families attempting to carry out normal daily routines. In this study, functional assessments and assessment-based interventions were conducted in a family-centered manner to resolve the disruptive behaviors of a boy with significant disabilities in the context of a fast-food restaurant. The study used a multiple-baseline design across three problematic subroutines associated with the fast-food restaurant. The results provide an empirical demonstration of family-centered interventions in a popular community setting and thereby add to an expanding literature on community-based positive behavior support.
Teaching Recess: Low Cost Efforts Producing Effective Results
Anne Todd, Laurie Haugen, Kathryn Anderson, and Marilyn Spriggs
This paper describes an intervention using positive behavior support strategies to reduce behavioral incidences occurring during recess. The intervention was developed and implemented by an elementary school Effective Behavior Support team. The intervention was based on a model that focuses on (a) data-based decision making, (b) system-oriented school improvement goals, and (c) team-driven management as the critical features of the intervention design. Available data suggest that the intervention reduced the number of behavioral incidences, contributed to improving the overall school climate, and increased staff satisfaction.
The Use of Social Stories as a Preventative Behavioral Intervention in a Home Setting with a Child with Autism
Peggy A. Lorimer, Richard L. Simpson, Brenda Smith Myles, Jennifer B. Ganz
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a social story intervention implemented in a home setting to decrease precursors to tantrum behavior in a five year-old boy with autism. Using an ABAB design, two social stories were presented and withdrawn while using an event recording procedure. That is, the frequency of interrupting verbalizations, determined to be precursors to tantrum behavior, was tallied. Data revealed a decrease in interrupting verbalizations and tantrums when the social stories were available and an increase in these behaviors when the social stories were withdrawn.
Are you a Behaviorist or a Bonder?: Smashing Artificial Dichotomies and Entering into a Dialogue of Shared Knowledge and Multiple Perspectives
Linda M. Bambara
Strengthening the Focus on Problem Contexts
Martha E. Snell
Commentary on "Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science"
David P. Wacker and Wendy K. Berg