Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 4, Number 4, Fall 2002
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
Special Section on Urban Issues - Part 1
Guest Editorial: Postive Behavior Support and Urban School Improvement: A Special Section of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
Cheryl A. Utley and Wayne Sailor
Positive Behavior Support: A Proactive Strategy for Minimizing Behavior Problems in Urban Multicultural Youth
Cheryl A. Utley, Ph. D., Elizabeth Kozleski, Ed. D., Anne Smith, Ph. D., Ingrid L. Draper, Ed.D.
The social-emotional needs of children in urban school communities place these students at risk for educational failure. For these children, successful teaching and learning models appear particularly complex because they must combine both multicultural approaches and effective positive behavior support (PBS) strategies that promote healthy, prosocial behaviors. This article (a) examines trends in the racial disparity in exclusionary discipline procedures that impact the schooling experiences of urban children (b) presents a conceptual framework for understanding culturally influenced social behaviors, and (c) discusses ways to incorporate multicultural education into PBS programs.social behaviors, and (c) discusses ways to incorporate multicultural education into PBS programs.
Young Children with Challenging Behavior: Issues and Considerations for Behavior Support
Lise Fox, Glen Dunlap, & Diane Powell
The critical importance of intervening early to promote the social and emotional development of young children is a recurring theme within several reports commissioned by national organizations and leaders (i.e., Child Mental Health Foundations and Agencies Network;National Research Council of the Institute of Medicine; Surgeon General). There is an increasing awareness that social emotional difficulties and problem behaviors in young children are highly likely to continue in school. In addition, young children who show the most chronicity and stability of problem behavior are more likely to be members of families who experience marital distress, parental depression, and poverty. Young children in urban environments who have problem behavior are likely to also face challenges in health, poverty, and access to quality child care and other services. Therefore, the development of comprehensive models of early intervention for children with problem behavior in urban environments is a complex endeavor. In this article, the complexity of the urban context is described with a focus on the lives of young children and their families. The authors present a discussion of appropriate practices and research that provides a foundation for the development of effective early intervention programs for young children affected by environmental and developmental challenges. The emphasis of program recommendations is on comprehensiveness in the design of family-centered behavioral support options.
Operation Positive Change: Positive Behavior Support in an Urban Context
Ursula Markey, DJ Markey, Brenda Quant, Betsy Santelli, Ann Turnbull
Children who have problem behavior need not only the support of school personnel but also the support of their parents to be successful in both educational and community/home settings. However too often research-based best practices in PBS do not reach families – and particularly those culturally and linguistically diverse families living in underserved urban communities. This article describes Operation Positive Change – a training curriculum and train-the-trainer model developed by Pyramid Parent Training Community Parent Resource Center that brings PBS best practices identified by leading PBS researchers to parents in New Orleans, LA. After participating in Operation Positive Change workshops, parents who are dealing with not only the problem behavior of their children, but also a myriad of other challenges related to poverty, race, and language barriers, are gathering data about their child’s strengths and needs and likes and dislikes, developing a functional assessment for their child, and participating as full partners in the development of a PBS plan for the IEP.
Individualizing Functional Analysis to Assess Multiple and Changing Functions of Severe Behavior Problems in Children with Autism
Chris A. LaBelle and Marjorie H. Charlop-Christy
Relatively few published studies have used functional analysis to assess severe behavior problems in children with autism, and virtually none have assessed behaviors maintained by multiple and changing functions. This study extended the use of a traditional functional analysis analogue by examining the functional relations between problem behaviors maintained by multiple and changing functions and specific environmental events. Three children with autism participated in this study. The target behaviors of disruptive behavior and inappropriate vocalizations were observed during periods of brief, repeated exposure to a series of analogue conditions (attention, tangible, escape, alone, and play) using a multielement experimental design. A new condition was added to assess changing functions of a single behavior. Results indicated that problem behaviors were maintained by multiple functions (attention, escape, tangibles, and automatic reinforcement). The new methodology for assessing changing functions of aberrant behavior revealed that contingencies initially applied to the target behavior were associated with changing functions of that behavior during the course of an experimental session. The implications of this study provide social significance in that a clear methodology for studying problem behaviors and what controls them can lead to a decrease in such behaviors and improved quality of life.
Positive Behavior Support for a Young Child Who Has Experienced Neglect and Abuse: Testimonials of a Family Member and Professionals
Pamelazita W. Buschbacher
The parent of an adopted young child who had previously experienced neglect and abuse with concomitant severe challenging behavior, and the interventionists involved in supporting the child and family, were interviewed regarding their reflections on the implementation and outcomes of the Individualized Support Project. Components of this intense and comprehensive model of early intervention include functional assessment of problem behavior, person-centered planning, development of a behavior support plan, and communication-based instruction within natural environments. Interviewees described their experiences with the model and the positive outcomes for the child, family, and professionals. While the interviewees’ testimonials are encouraging, there is a clear need for empirical research regarding positive behavior support and the complex challenges of abuse and neglect.