Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 5, Number 1, Winter 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
Video technology and persons with autism and other developmental disabilities: An emerging technology of positive behavioral support
Teaching Complex Play Sequences To A PreschoolerWith Autism Using Video Modeling
Patricia D’Ateno, Kathleen Mangiapanello, Bridget A. Taylor
The identification of efficient teaching procedures to address imaginative play skills deficits commonly seen in children with autism is a challenge for those designing treatment programs. In the present study video modeling was used to teach play skills to a preschool child with autism. Videotaped play sequences included both verbal and motor responses. A multiple baseline across three response categories (tea party, shopping, and baking) was implemented to demonstrate experimental control. No experimenter implemented reinforcement or correction procedures were used during the intervention. Results showed that the video modeling intervention led to the rapid acquisition of both verbal and motor responses for all play sequences. The video modeling teaching procedure was shown to be an efficient technique for teaching relatively long sequences of responses in the absence of chaining procedures in relatively few teaching sessions. Additionally, the complex sequences of verbal and motor responses were acquired without the use of error correction procedures or explicit, experimenter implemented reinforcement contingencies.
Using Video Modeling to Teach Perspective Taking to Children with Autism
Marjorie Charlop-Christy, Ph.D. and Sabrina Daneshvar
Perspective taking refers to the ability to attribute mental states of others in order to explain or predict behavior. In typically developing children, this skill develops around age 4 (Baron-Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985), but is delayed or absent in children with autism (Happe, 1994). In the present study, video modeling was used to teach perspective taking to 3 children with autism. A multiple baseline design across children and within child across tasks was used to assess learning. Generalization across un-trained similar stimuli was also assessed. Video modeling was a fast and effective tool for teaching perspective taking tasks to children with autism, resulting in both stimulus and response generalization. These results concurred with previous research that perspective taking can be taught. However, unlike other studies, wider ranges of generalization were found.
Computer Presented Video Models to Teach Generative Spelling to a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder
Elisabeth M. Kinney, Joseph Vedora, Robert Stromer
We examined the use of computer video models and video rewards to teach generative spelling to a child with an autism spectrum disorder. In Phase 1, Ana viewed video models of her teacher writing target words. After Ana wrote correctly, she watched videos of play routines unique to each training word. Ana rapidly learned to spell three five-word sets to pictures and dictation. In Phase 2, Ana learned to spell four novel words (e.g., lore and tock) based on the elements of five words learned in Phase 1 (e.g., tore and lock) and arranged into a teaching matrix of three beginning consonants and three word endings. In Phases 3 and 4, Ana learned to spell subsets of four three-by-three matrices, then immediately proved capable of spelling the remaining words in each matrix. Ana also succeeded on generalization and maintenance tests at home and school throughout the study. Thus, generative spelling may derive from a teaching package that involves video models and rewards, and that arranges opportunities to learn to recombine initial consonants and word endings. Ana’s proficiency in spelling helped her acquire literacy skills commensurate with her regular school placement.
Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Spontaneous Requesting in Children with Autism
Barbara Yingling Wert and John T. Neisworth
Video self monitoring (VSM) is a promising intervention to teach new skills and improve the use of existing skills in young children with autism. VSM includes observation and imitation of oneself on videotape that records specific desirable child behaviors. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of VSM for training young children with autism to make spontaneous requests in school settings. Four young children with autism participated. Experimental control was demonstrated using a multiple baseline design across subjects. Introduction of VSM led to a large increase in requesting behavior in all four children. VSM was effective in causing an increase in spontaneous requesting in young children with autism.
Training Human Service Supervisors in Aspects of Positive Behavior Support: Evaluation of a State-Wide, Performance-Based Program
Dennis H. Reid, David A. Rotholz, Marsha B. Parsons, LouAnn Morris, Bruce A. Braswell, Carolyn W. Green and Robert M. Schell
If many people with disabilities are to experience the benefits of positive behavior support, personnel in human service settings must be well versed in the values and practices of this approach. We describe a curriculum and methodology used to train supervisors in aspects of positive behavior support on a state-wide basis. The curriculum incorporated values of person-centered planning, ecologically valid practices, and principles of adult learning in conjunction with competency- and performance-based training. Selected components of the curriculum were initially evaluated experimentally with 12 supervisors. Observations during role-play activities and on-the-job applications indicated that the supervisors acquired the skills addressed in the training. Subsequently, the entire curriculum, targeting 26 sets of skills related to positive behavior support and involving 4 days of classroom training and 1 day of on-the-job training, was implemented with 386 supervisors across the state of South Carolina. Eighty-five percent of the supervisors successfully completed the training by demonstrating pre-established, mastery-level performance for each set of skills. Acceptability measures suggested that all trainees found the training useful, and 99.6% reported that they would recommend the training to other personnel. Results of the project are discussed in terms of the importance of training supervisors as one component of a system-change process to enhance the practice of positive behavior support on a large-scale basis.
Training reciprical socialinteractions between preschoolers and a child with autism
Ann M. McGrath, Sebastian Bosch, Cristin L. Sullivan, R. Wayne Fuqua
Previous research has suggested that children diagnosed with autism have severe social deficits that require active intervention. As such, the current study investigated the effectiveness of peer and individual social skills training of a preschooler diagnosed with autism at increasing the rate of reciprocal social interactions. Results indicate that frequency of appropriate initiations and responses did increase, and that these changes were socially valid as measured by expert ratings of change, and in comparison to normal peer to peer social behavior. Results are discussed in terms of their applicability to classrooms serving children diagnosed with autism.
A Family-Centered Prevention Approach toPositive Behavior Support in a Time of Crisis
Mendy Boettcher, Robert L. Koegel, Erin K. McNerney and Lynn Kern Koegel
This article describes a family-wide prevention approach to PBS interventions during a period of potential crisis for a family with a child with autism. Specifically, the mother in this family was to have major invasive surgery, which would require extensive time for recovery. Past functional assessment data and anecdotal evidence indicated that lack of predictability, structure, supervision, and systematic behavior supports all contributed to problem behavior in this family. As a result, a multi-component intervention plan was implemented to prevent such problems. The procedures included the following elements: 1) priming intervention, 2) stakeholder meeting, 3) coordination of services and schedules, 4) family-wide PBS plan, and 5) ongoing support. The outcome of this intervention was that the child with autism and her siblings showed decreases in their disruptive behaviors (as opposed to the expected increases), and the family experienced other family-wide collateral positive effects from this proactive intervention approach to PBS.