Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 5, Number 3, Summer 2003
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Glen Dunlap and Robert L. Koegel
Functional Assessment and Wraparound as Systematic School Processes: Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Systems Examples
Terrance M. Scott and Lucille Eber
This article proposes a framework for expanding the traditional presentation of wraparound and FBA to (a) view wraparound and FBA as concepts that are inextricably linked at the core of each level of the proactive systemic process of PBS and (b) understand how wraparound and FBA are critical features of prevention as well as intervention for creating safer schools for all students.
Use of Functional Assessment and a Self-Management System to Increase Academic Engagement and Work Completion
Amy Brooks, Anne W. Todd, Sheri Tofflemoyer, and Robert H. Horner
This study investigates whether a functional relationship exists between self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement and an increase in both on-task behavior and assignmnet completeion. The study further assesses whether self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement is associated with generalization of performance gains to untrained settings. Training in self-management procedures included systematic instruction of behavior and general case programming to promote generalization of skills. An ABCAC design was used to assess the effects of self-management procedures in the training setting, and a multiple-baseline-across-settings design was used to assess generalization effects. The results demonstrated that a functional relationship existed between self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement and an increase in on-task behavior and assignment completion. Generalization of self-management skills to novel school contexts varied. The role of self-management procedures in promoting generalization is discussed.
Adapting the Use of Microswitches to Foster Response Awareness and Word Association: Two Case Evaluation
Giulio E. Lancioni, Nirbay N. Singh, Mark F. O'Reilly, Doretta Oliva, Elisa Dardanelli, and Patrizia Pirani
In this study, the use of microswitches was adapted to foster response awareness and word association for two persons with multiple disabilities. A microswitch activation/response produced a spoken work indicating the consequences available for it. Repeating that response after the word led to the occurrence of the consequences. Repeating the specific response, rather than emitting a different one, was considered a sign of response awareness. Both persons learned to repeat the appropriate responses after the words, showing signs of response awarenss. They also showed moderate to high levels of association of the words presented as probes (outside of the above sequence) with the related responses. Implications of the data and the use of this apporach in the person's daily contexts are discussed.
Positive Behavior Support in Urban Schools: Can We Prevent the Escalation of Antisocial Behavior?
Barry L.McCurdy, Mark C. Mannella, Norris Eldrige
Antisocial patterns of behavior are increasingly evident among student populations across the nation. Students from impoverished urban environments are most at risk due, in part, to a wide variety of contextual factors occurring in both the community and school. This article describes a case study of a school-wide positive behavior support model implemented in an ethnically and racially diverse inner-city elementary school. The project brought together school-based professionals with expert behavioral consultants from a local behavioral healthcare agency to address the increasing rates of student disruptive behavior. Significant reductions were evident in both the overall level of office discipline referrals (ODRs) as well as the most serious offense, student assaults. Results are discussed within the context of the larger task of preventing antisocial behavior in urban schools.
A Comparison of Naturalistic and Analog Treatment Effects in Children with Expressive Language Disorder and Poor Preintervention Imitation Skills
Heather Gillum, Stephen Camarata, Keith E. Nelson, Mary N. Camarata
The participants in this study were 4 children diagnosed with Expressive Language Disorder (ELD) who displayed poor imitation skills, with scores significantly below typical levels on the Sentence Imitation subtest of the Test of Language Development-2: Primary (TOLD-2:P; Newcomer & Hammill, 1988). The purpose of this study was to compare the treatment effects of both naturalistic (conversational recast) treatment and analog treatment in these participants. The results indicate that children with poor preintervention imitation skills required higher numbers of analog presentations to establish production of the language structures than was observed under the naturalistic treatment. Clinical implications of these results are discussed.
Facilitating Social Interactions in the Community for a Transition-Age Student with Severe Disabilities
Geri Souza and Craig H. Kennedy
We studied a strategy for facilitating social interactions in community settings for a transition-age woman with severe disabilities (Juanita). The intervention involved identifying (a) a person without intellectual disabilities who frequented the same setting as Juanita, (b) who was interested in meeting her, and (c) scheduling mutually preferred activities for them to interact within. Results suggest that this relatively simple social interaction strategy may be one option for improving social integration in community settings for transition-age students.
Emerging Challenges and Opportunities: Introducing the Association for Positive Behavior Support
Tim Knoster, Jacki Anderson, Ted Carr, Glen Dunlap, Rob Horner
Positive behavior support (PBS) is an approach to intervention derived from social, behavioral, and biomedical science that is applied at the individual and/or systems level to achieve reduction in problem behavior and improved quality of life. As the constituencies involved with PBS have grown over time there has been an increased sense that an organization centered on the adoption and utilization of PBS is needed to unite these communities and assist in the promotion and continuing development of the discipline. We announce here the creation of The Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) to meet this need. APBS is committed to a collaborative and inclusive approach to membership and strategic networking with a variety of natural partners in the field. This brief article provides an introduction to APBS and an invitation to prospective members of this new international organization.