Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 7, Number 1, Winter 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
Use of strategic self-monitoring to enhance academic engagement, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without exceptionalities.
Marcia L. Rock.
This study investigated the effects of a strategic self-monitoring intervention (i.e., ACT-REACT) on the academic engagement, nontargeted problem behavior, productivity, and accuracy of students with and without disabilities. Seven boys and two girls of elementary age who received their educational services in two different inclusive classrooms participated in this investigation. The students were taught to use the ACT-REACT strategy during independent math/reading seatwork. ACT-REACT is a combined self-monitoring of attention and self-monitoring of performance intervention designed to help chronically disengaged students take control of their learning. A multiple-baseline-across-subjects design with an embedded reversal indicates that ACT-REACT was an effective strategy for fostering self-management and enhancing the academic performance of students with differing needs in inclusive classrooms.
Effect of brief clinic-based training on the ability of caregivers to implement escape extinction.
Ellen J. McCartney; Cynthia M. Anderson; Carie L. English.
Abstract: Escape extinction has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for children exhibiting food refusal. To date, most studies have been conducted in inpatient treatment settings by trained clinicians. Few studies have evaluated the extent to which caregivers are able to implement efficacious interventions in their home for their food-selective child. This study evaluated a systematic strategy for training caregivers to implement escape extinction. A modified changing-criterion design was used to evaluate a clinic-based training procedure consisting of escape extinction and differential reinforcement. After participants met prespecified criteria with regard to the number of bites accepted and latency until acceptance, caregivers were taught to implement the procedure in the clinic. After criteria were met with caregivers feeding their children, caregivers were taught to implement the procedure during meals conducted at their home. Follow-up data conducted for three participants indicated that generalization across time and food types had occurred.
Effects of video modeling alone and with self-management on compliment-giving behaviors of children with high-functioning ASD. (autism spectrum disorders)
Allison Lowy Apple; Felix Billingsley; Ilene S. Schwartz.
Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) typically exhibit a lack of social reciprocity skills. They often struggle to maintain conversations, especially with topics of little or no interest to them, and to create meaningful relationships. By giving compliments to others, children with ASD have a means by which to show approval for issues of interest to others. Video modeling has been shown to he effective in teaching social behaviors, particularly when it is followed by additional practice, prompts, and role playing. This study, involving two experiments, focused on teaching compliment-giving responses and initiations through video modeling with embedded, explicit rules for giving compliments in the place of additional procedures following video viewing. A multiple-baseline design across participants revealed that video modeling with explicit rules served to produce and maintain compliments of the "response" type. Video modeling with the addition of contrived reinforcement contingencies served to produce compliment-giving initiations in the presence of a teacher who monitored the children's behavior. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the inclusion of self-management strategies increased the children's independence in the monitoring of their compliment-giving initiations. Experimental results pointed to the use of self-management as a means by which to produce social initiations when video modeling alone fails.
Episodic severity: an overlooked dependent variable in the application of behavior analysis to challenging behavior.
Gary W. LaVigna; Thomas J. Willis.
Although applied behavior analysis has made a significant contribution in the area of challenging behavior, to date, researchers have not systematically investigated the episodic severity of behavior as a dependent variable. Episodic severity is defined as the measure of intensity or gravity of a behavioral incident. Research up to now has investigated changes in behavior over time, but not the degree to or speed with which a behavioral incident can be safely resolved. As a result, practitioners have had to look beyond applied behavior analysis to emergency management systems such as Mandt, Nappi, CPI, and the like, which have not been empirically tested. This article proposes including episodic severity as an additional dependent variable to enhance the social validity of behavioral plans and discusses the resulting implications for new terms and strategies.
Positive behavior support as a family-centered endeavor. Bobbie J. Vaughn; Ronnie White; Stephanie Johnston; Glen Dunlap.