Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 6, Number 4, Fall 2004
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Glen Dunlap
Using parent/clinician partnerships in parent education programs for children with autism.
Recently, many treatments for children with disabilities have shifted from a purely clinician-implemented model to one that focuses on a parent education component. In the current study, a repeated reversal design was employed to compare the effects of a parent education intervention that incorporates the principles outlined in the parent empowerment and ecocultural literature with a professional-driven model that does not incorporate these principles. The Parent/Clinician Partnership and Clinician-Directed models were compared on the following measures: (a) observed parent stress, (b) observed parent confidence, (c) observed child affect, and (d) child responsiveness and engagement. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for parent education programs and the relationships between clinical outcome and the type of parent education procedures implemented.
The efficacy of embedded instruction for students with developmental disabilities enrolled in general education classes.
Jesse W. Johnson; John McDonnell; Valarie N. Holzwarth; Kimberly Hunter.
A multiple baseline across behaviors design was used to evaluate the efficacy of embedded instruction with 3 students with developmental disabilities who were enrolled in general education classes. Two general education teachers and 1 paraprofessional delivered embedded instruction to students during regularly scheduled instructional activities. The skills taught to students included answering probe questions drawn from the general science curriculum, identifying functional sight-words drawn from the general reading curriculum, and making requests using an electronic communication device. Student data showed that embedded instruction was effective with all 3 students. The results also indicate that both general education teachers and paraprofessionals were able to implement the procedure with a high degree of fidelity without disrupting the ongoing instructional activities of the general education classes. Teacher ratings of the acceptability and perceived effectiveness of the procedures suggested that teachers viewed embedded instruction as a practical, effective, and efficient strategy for teaching students with developmental disabilities in general education settings.
The effect of choice-making as an intervention for problem behavior: a meta-analysis.
Karrie A. Shogren; Michael N. Faggella-Luby; Sung Jik Bae; Michael L. Wehmeyer.
Supporting people with disabilities in expressing preferences and making choices is a core value in positive behavior support. Indeed, in recent years, the field has increasingly focused its attention on the importance of making choices and the potential benefits of choice-making opportunities in enhancing the quality of life of people with disabilities. In addition, an emerging database is suggesting that providing opportunities to make choices can serve as an intervention for decreasing problem behavior. The authors of this article examine the efficacy of the use of choice-making as an intervention for reducing problem behavior through a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies using choice-making as an intervention. A search of the PsycINFO and ERIC databases yielded 13 studies that met the meta-analysis criteria, with interventions affecting 30 participants. The impact of choice interventions was evaluated using the percentage nonoverlapping data and percentage zero data metrics. Overall, providing choice opportunities resulted in clinically significant reductions in the number of occurrences of problem behavior. The authors discuss the benefits of utilizing choice as an intervention and provide future directions for research in this area.
Using video-enhanced activity schedules and matrix training to teach sociodramatic play to a child with autism. Melissa Dauphin; Elisabeth M. Kinney; Robert Stromer.
We evaluated an intervention package for teaching generative sociodramatic play activities to a young boy with an autism spectrum disorder. In Phase 1, the boy learned computer activity schedules that featured embedded video models of what to say and do. A 3 x 3 instructional matrix defined 9 activities to be performed involving combinations of 3 figurines and 3 actions. In Phase 2, the boy learned to use notebook schedules with pictures cuing sequences of different play activities. Phase 3 clarified and expanded the skills learned so far: Across 3 new instructional matrices, the boy learned 3 of the 9 activities within each matrix using video-enhanced computer schedules. For every activity taught directly, nearly 2 additional activities also occurred. The results recommend video-enhanced activity schedules to teach sociodramatic play and the use of matrix training to program for generative learning outcomes.
Construing misbehavior: the efficacy connection in responding to misbehavior.
Joe Morin; Rosemary Battalio.
The implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) initiatives has experienced considerable success. Student behaviors have improved, and teachers' attitudes about the remediation of misbehavior have become more positive when PBS is used. When teacher practice results in a positive outcome, there is a corresponding increase in personal teaching efficacy (PTE). Teachers with lower PTE may be under-prepared to adopt PBS initiatives as a suitable replacement for how they have formerly dealt with misbehaving students. The skill and disposition required to conduct Functional Behavioral Assessments and to implement a Behavioral Intervention Plans may be beyond the level of these teachers. In this current article, the case is made for intensifying the technical assistance offered to these teachers.