Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 7, Number 2, Spring 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
From the Periodicals Director
Judith K. Voress
Robert L. Koegel and Robert H. Horner
Quality of rapport as a setting event for problem behavior: assessment and intervention.
Darlene Magito McLaughlin and Edward G. Carr
Relationship quality (rapport) between people with developmental disabilities and their caregivers has long been suggested as an important variable influencing the likelihood of problem behavior. However, to date, the association between rapport and problem behavior has not been systematically investigated. The authors evaluated a multimethod strategy for assessing rapport and then used the assessment information to develop a multicomponent intervention for problem behavior. In Study 1, a descriptive assessment was carried out in which rapport was operationally defined, and good and poor rapport dyads consisting of staff members and participants were identified. Then, a functional analysis of each participant's problem behavior was conducted with respect to the interaction of two factors: quality of rapport and task demands. The results of the assessment study indicated that when rapport was poor, levels of problem behavior were high; when rapport was good, levels of problem behavior were low. In Study 2, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention package designed to improve rapport between the person with disabilities and his or her caregiver. When rapport improved, participants showed a decrease in problem behavior and an increase in task completion in the presence of staff members who had previously been identified as having poor rapport with participants. The multidimensional nature of rapport assessment, as well as the unique contribution that rapport-building can make to multicomponent intervention, are discussed.
Personal paradigm shifts in PBS experts: perceptions of treatment acceptability of decelerative consequence-based behavioral procedures.(positive behavior supports).
Craig A. Michaels, Fredda Brown, and Niki Mirabella
Positive Behavior Supports (PBS) experts were surveyed to examine their perceptions of the treatment acceptability of commonly used decelerative consequence-based behavioral procedures. Findings illuminate the paradigm shifts that have occurred over the course of the careers of PBS experts and the factors that have contributed to these personal paradigm shifts. Many of the decelerative consequence-based procedures once used by respondents are no longer perceived by them to be acceptable. A small percentage of experts indicated that they still might use the full range of decelerative techniques under certain circumstances. The need for more training and ideological change were perceived to be the greatest challenges currently facing the field. Experts also indicated that involvement in PBS has broadened their understanding of applied behavior analysis, the function of behavior, antecedents, quality of life, and self-determination issues facing people with disabilities. The implications of the findings for current and future PBS researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Building a statewide plan for embedding positive behavior support in human service organizations.
Rachel Freeman, Christopher Smith, Jennifer Zarcone, Pat Kimbrough, Marie Tieghi-Benet, Donna Wickham, Matt Reese and Katie Hine.
The PBS triangle: does it fit as a heuristic? A reflection on the first international conference on positive behavior support.
Candace Kay Baker
The Forum section of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions is presented to encourage communication among readers and provide for an exchange of opinions, perspectives, ideas, and informative personal accounts. We welcome brief articles from family members, professionals, friends, advocates, administrators, researchers, and other individuals who are concerned with behavioral support issues. The purpose of the Forum is to facilitate a constructive dialogue among our many stakeholders regarding important issues in practice, research, training, program development, and policy. Submissions to the Forum undergo an expedited review and may be submitted to either editor.
The Forum article in this issue takes a closer look at the evolution of the triangle heuristic used to represent positive behavior support. Specifically, Baker proposes that the professional field think constructively about what the graphic actually represents. It is hoped that this article will serve as a catalyst for group reflection and the further evolution of positive behavior support.