Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 7, Number 3, Summer 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Robert H. Horner
Behavior support strategies in early childhood settings: teachers' importance and feasibility ratings.
Melissa Stormont, Timothy J. Lewis, and Sandra Covington Smith
The current study investigated early childhood professionals' opinions regarding the use of behavioral supports for children with challenging behavior. Participants included early childhood special education teachers, Title I teachers, speech and language pathologists, instructional aids and paraprofessionals, physical therapists, and school psychologists. Participants rated 24 behavioral support strategies on both their importance and their feasibility. Overall, results indicated that early childhood professionals rated the majority of the behavior support items in the mostly important range. Participants did not rate as many items as mostly feasible, and statistical analyses documented a significant difference between overall importance of the items and overall feasibility. Early childhood professionals' characteristics were analyzed to investigate whether groups differed ill their perceptions of the importance and feasibility of the behavioral support items. Findings indicated that early childhood special education and Title I teachers rated the support items as more important than did paraprofessionals and instructional aids. Educational level also differentiated groups on importance ratings; professionals with either undergraduate degrees or graduate-level educational experiences rated items as more important than professionals with high school--level educations or some college. Years of teaching experience was not associated with ratings, and no teacher characteristic was associated with the feasibility of behavior supports. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Team involvement in assessment-based interventions with problem behavior: 1997-2002.
Martha E. Snell, Mary D. Voorhees, and Lih-Yuan Chen
Descriptive and qualitative analyses were applied to a database of 111 assessment-based studies published between 1997 and 2002 on the problem behavior of school-age individuals with disabilities, to determine how frequently key components of positive behavior support (PBS) were being used. While most of the database reported reductions in problem behavior, only half focused on and reported increases in replacement skills. Interventions frequently reported were positive reinforcement, antecedent-based approaches, and skill training. Interventions using parent/teacher skill training were infrequent, and self-management, peer-mediated intervention, and comprehensive lifestyle change were rare. Involvement of family and educators was reported in one quarter of the database, with the highest involvement of nonresearchers during assessment. Studies using functional assessment alone or in combination with functional analysis and studies conducted in natural settings were more likely to use key features of PBS than were studies that used only functional analysis or were conducted in atypical settings.
Bicycle riding: pedaling made possible through positive behavioral interventions.
Michael J. Cameron, Robert L. Shapiro, and Susan A. Ainsleigh
This study demonstrated how the tenets of positive behavior support could be used to teach an educational activity. Emphasis was placed on the implementation of practical strategies to minimize errors during instruction and maximize positive outcomes. A 9-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome served as the participant, and the skill targeted for development was bicycle riding. An eight-step task analysis based on a highly individualized approach was used for instructional purposes. A changing criterion design was used to demonstrate progressively the emergence of bicycle riding over a span of 64 sessions. The implications of selecting target skills based on the criteria of social values, the employment of practical teaching strategies, and scientific deduction are discussed.
Expanding interventions for children with autism: parents as trainers.
Jennifer B. Symon
The number of individuals diagnosed with autism has risen at an alarming rate. Expanding services should be a primary consideration of programs for children and their families. This article presents outcome data from a week-long parent education program for families of children with autism to suggest that parents can learn not only how to effectively implement strategies into their interactions with their children but also to train others who work with their children. Single-case research methods were used to assess the spread of effect of a parent education program from parents to other care providers. Results indicate that parents successfully trained others to implement the techniques presented during the program. Additionally, the children's social communication and behaviors improved during interactions with the other caregivers.
Linking positive behavior support to family quality-of-life outcomes.
Erin Smith-Bird, and Ann P. Turnbull
Increasing attention is being given to the fact that positive behavior support (PBS) not only affects individual quality of life but branches out to affect family quality of life as well. This article provides a brief overview of family quality of life, citing specific information from the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale. An analysis of four key research studies, which contain both a PBS and a family component, is presented with links to the Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale domains and indicators. This analysis leads to a discussion of emerging themes and explores implications for future research and practice.
Family-school collaboration and positive behavior support.
Kathleen M. Minke, and Kellie J. Anderson
Does it matter who participates in our studies? A caution when interpreting the research on positive behavioral support. (Forum article)
V. Mark Durand, and Nichole Rost
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