Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 8, Number 1, Winter 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Robert H. Horner
Using the effective behavior supports survey to guide development of schoolwide positive behavior support.
Stephen P. Safran
Abstract: As the use of school-based positive behavior support (PBS) spreads nationwide, the development of assessment strategies to identify intervention priorities becomes more critical. This study addresses the validity of the Effective Behavior Supports Survey (Lewis & Sugai, 1999) by examining reliability, determining whether rating differences exist across the four PBS systems and among schools, and reporting the use of the scale in schoolwide planning. Total scale internal consistency reliability reflects a moderate to high level, suggesting that the instrument does contain a cohesive set of items. A large effect size was also found differentiating ratings for the PBS systems, indicating that Individual Student Systems were considered least in place. A case example illustrating the use of the scale as a vehicle for collaborative action planning in a middle school is also discussed.
Using office discipline referral data for decision making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: an empirical evaluation of validity.
Larry K. Irvin, Robert H. Horner, Kimberly Ingram, Anne W. Todd, George Sugai, Nadia Katul Sampson and Joseph B. Boland.
Abstract: In this evaluation we used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools. The Messick approach provided a rubric for testing the fit of our theory of use of ODR measures with empirical data on reported and actual use. It also facilitated our demonstration of Messick's principle that validation is both a developmental and an ongoing collaborative process among developers of educational and psychological measures, researchers interested in theories underlying such measures, and educators who use these measures in professional practice. We used a single-group, nonexperimental evaluation design to survey users of ODR measures from the standardized School Wide Information System in 22 elementary and 10 middle schools; respondents included school staff involved exclusively with data entry and staff actively involved in data-based decision making. Results were highly consistent across 2 independent data sources--electronic database records of actual access of summaries of ODR measures and self-report survey responses regarding frequencies and types of uses of ODR measures for decision making. Results indicated that ODR measures are regularly used for a variety of types of data-based decision making and are regarded as both efficient and effective for those purposes. We discuss implications of our SWIS ODR validity evaluation results within the context of the Messick framework.
Elimination of drooling by an adolescent student with autism attending public high school.
Shannon Kay, Alan E. Harchik and James K. Luiselli.
Abstract: We evaluated a multicomponent intervention that successfully eliminated drooling by a 17-year-old student with autism who attended a public high school. The student was taught to perform compensatory responses (wiping his mouth and swallowing saliva), received positive reinforcement for having a "dry mouth" and was given opportunities to monitor his appearance. Implemented in a multiple-baseline design across three school locations, intervention was applied with high integrity and judged positively by staff.
The effects of social stories on the social engagement of children with autism.
Monica Delano and Martha E. Snell.
Abstract: A multiple-probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of social stories on the duration of appropriate social engagement and the frequency of 4 social skills in 3 elementary-age students with autism. The social skills were seeking attention, initiating comments, initiating requests, and making contingent responses. Following the intervention, which consisted of reading individualized social stories, answering comprehension questions, and participating in a 10-min play session, the duration of social engagement increased for all 3 students with both a training peer and a novel peer. The number of target social skills displayed during the 10-min play sessions increased after the intervention was introduced. Two students demonstrated generalization to a classroom setting. These findings suggest that the use of social stories without additional social skill interventions may be effective in increasing the duration of social engagement and the frequency of specific social skills.
Using social stories to improve the social behavior of children with Asperger syndrome.
Frank J. Sansosti and Kelly A. Powell-Smith.
Abstract: To date, the empirical support for the use of social story interventions for children with Asperger syndrome (AS) is small. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of individualized social story interventions on the social behavior of three children with AS. Using a multiple-baseline-across-participants design, social stories were implemented, and direct observations of the participants' identified target behaviors were conducted three times per week during unstructured school activities (e.g., recess). Data revealed an increase in the social behavior of two of the three participants when the treatment was implemented. Unfortunately, maintenance of target behaviors was not observed. These data provide some initial support for the use of social stories to teach social skills to children diagnosed with AS. However, failure to demonstrate skill maintenance and poor results for one participant highlight possible limitations of the social story intervention and suggest a strong need for further research. Recommendations for future research endeavors and the potential benefits of social story interventions are discussed.
The applied behavior analytic heritage of PBS: a dynamic model of action-oriented research.(positive behavior support).
Glen Dunlap. (Forum Article)