Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 8, Number 4, Fall 2006
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Robert H. Horner
Behavior intervention planning and implementation of positive behavioral support plans: an examination of states' adherence to standards for practice.
Kim Killu, Kimberly P. Weber, K. Mark Derby and Anjali Barretto.
To address the behavioral needs of students with disabilities in school settings, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA) requires the development and implementation of a behavior intervention plan/positive behavioral support plan (BIP/PBSP) based on positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). Despite the BIP/ PBSP mandate, there are no federal guidelines in place to direct school personnel. Many states have assumed responsibility for establishing policies governing BIPs/PBSPs. This investigation examined the resources acquired or developed and disseminated by state education agencies (SEAs) in all 50 states and compared the information available in these resources with standard practice for BIP/PBSP development and PBIS practice.
Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD.
Brenna Stahr, Danielle Cushing, Kathleen Lane and James Fox.
This study examined the effects of a function-based intervention implemented with a student, Shawn, who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behavioral problems, and a speech and language impairment. Shawn attended a fourth-grade classroom in a self-contained school that served students with emotional and behavioral disorders. During language and math classes, Shawn exhibited high rates of off-task behavior. His teacher viewed these behaviors as disruptive, creating lost instructional time for all students. Functional assessment data indicated that Shawn's off-task behavior was maintained by attention (positive reinforcement) and escape from tasks (negative reinforcement). A function-based intervention including a communication system, a self-monitoring component, and extinction resulted in improvements in Shawn's behavior. The classroom teachers and Shawn rated the intervention favorably. Limitations and directions for future research are offered.
Evaluation of the treatment utility of the analog functional analysis and the structured descriptive assessment.
Carie L. English and Cynthia M. Anderson.
Direct methods of functional assessment--through which information is gathered by observing environment-behavior relations--vary with the degree to which environmental events are manipulated. Unstructured (ABC) assessments involve observing the occurrence of problem behavior without altering environmental events in any way. At the other extreme, the analog functional analysis is conducted by systematically manipulating predefined environmental events, usually in a controlled environment. Because one primary goal of functional assessment is to develop efficacious interventions based on hypotheses gleaned from the assessment, research evaluating the treatment utility of methods of functional assessment is warranted. Previous research comparing results obtained from different methods of assessment has yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was not only to compare hypotheses derived from different methods of direct functional assessment (caregiver-conducted analogs, experimenter-conducted analogs, the structured descriptive assessment [SDA]) but also to systematically evaluate interventions derived from each assessment. Three children diagnosed with developmental disabilities participated, along with their caregivers. For all three participants, different patterns of responding were observed across all three assessments. Furthermore, for all participants, the interventions based on the results of the SDA were more effective than interventions based on the analog functional analysis.
Self-operated auditory prompting systems as a function-based intervention in public community settings.
Melissa Alldread Hughes, Paul A. Alberto and Laura L. Fredrick.
Access to public community job-training sites can be restricted if students with moderate mental retardation exhibit behavior unacceptable to nondisabled coworkers or the general public. The authors conducted a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) in public community settings to determine the function of each student's problem behavior. They used a multiple-baseline-across-time sample design with behavioral probes embedded within a withdrawal to determine a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The use of self-operated auditory prompts matched to maintaining functions was the function-based intervention. Problem behavior was reduced to criterion for all four students during job training in public community settings.
Effects of peer mentors on work-related performance of adolescents with behavioral and/or learning disabilities.
Debbie Westerlund, Elizabeth A. Granucci, Peter Gamache and Hewitt B. Clark.
Many young people with behavior disorders and/or learning disabilities need assistance in learning work-related tasks but want support that is minimally intrusive and nonstigmatizing. This study demonstrates the effectiveness and acceptability of using peer mentors as natural supports to assist in improving work-related student performance in a cosmetology vocational training setting that serves school and community patrons. Peer mentors used demonstration, corrective feedback, and descriptive praise to provide in vivo training for four participants who were having difficulties learning verbal and nonverbal tasks. An intrasubject, multiple baseline design across tasks demonstrated the effectiveness of the peer mentors' role in teaching new skills, and responses to postintervention questionnaires indicated that the participants accepted the procedures.