Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 9, Number 1, Winter 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Robert H. Horner
The expanding vision of positive behavior support: research perspectives on happiness, helpfulness, hopefulness.
Edward G. Carr.
Abstract: Positive behavior support (PBS) represents an empirically driven concern with quality of life (QOL), support through systems change, and linkage to multiple behavioral, social, and biomedical sciences. The major impediments to QOL are problem behavior, skill deficits, and dysfunctional systems. A model for addressing dysfunctional systems is presented, and its relationship to issues of behavior maintenance and sustainability of intervention efforts is described. The expansion of PBS to new populations and venues will likely be facilitated by linking this field to other disciplines, including organizational management, community/ecological psychology, cultural psychology, biomedical science, and positive psychology. Such linkage will enhance the development of PBS conceptually, methodologically, and empirically, culminating in a more effective and unique applied science.
A demonstration of training, implementing, and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings.
Deanne A. Crone, Leanne S. Hawken and Melissa K. Bergstrom.
The primary goal of this project was to increase schools' resources and staff skills in providing function-based behavior support to individual students with chronic problem behaviors. Over the course of a 3-year period, 10 school teams received training in and on-site consultation on functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and behavior support planning. This article documents (a) how the teams were trained, (b) the level of FBA knowledge gained by each participating team member, (c) the extent to which critical features of FBA were implemented in each school, (d) the extent to which the training and procedures were found acceptable by school staff, and (e) lessons learned on how to train school teams to implement systems of FBA. Limitations of the current demonstration and future research directions in the area of FBA and behavior support are discussed.
Daily behavior report cards: an investigation of the consistency of on-task data across raters and methods.(Case study).
Sandra M. Chafouleas, T. Chris Riley-Tillman, Kari A. Sassu, Mary J. LaFrance and Shamim S. Patwa.
In this study, the consistency of on-task data collected across raters using either a Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) or systematic direct observation was examined to begin to understand the decision reliability of using DBRCs to monitor student behavior. Results suggested very similar conclusions might be drawn when visually examining data collected by an external observer using either systematic direct observation or a DBRC. In addition, similar conclusions might be drawn upon visual analysis of either systematic direct observation or DBRC data collected by an external observer versus a teacher-completed DBRC. Examination of effect sizes from baseline to intervention phases suggested greater potential for different conclusions to be drawn about student behavior, dependent on the method and rater. In summary, overall consistency of data across method and rater found in this study lends support to the use of DBRCs to estimate global classroom behavior as part of a multimethod assessment. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
Implementing positive behavior support with Chinese American families: enhancing cultural competence.
Mian Wang, Amy McCart and Ann P. Turnbull.
In positive behavior support (PBS) practices, one critical issue involves helping professionals understand and respect the values of families from culturally diverse backgrounds. This article summarizes embedded cultural values of PBS represented in four key features of the PBS process: collaborative partnerships, functional assessment, contextual fit, and meaningful lifestyle outcomes. With acknowledgment of acculturation, the contrast between Chinese cultural values and embedded PBS values is illustrated in the context of implementing PBS for Chinese American families.
Child demographics associated with outcomes in a community-based pivotal response training program.
Mary J. Baker-Ericzen, Aubyn C. Stahmer and Amelia Burns.
Although knowledge about the efficacy of treatments such as pivotal response training (PRT) for children with autism is increasing, studies of large-scale effectiveness for and transportability to diverse community populations are needed. The current study provides a large-scale preliminary assessment of (a) the effectiveness of a community-based parent education PRT intervention and (b) whether specific child variables are associated with outcomes. One hundred fifty-eight families with children having an autism spectrum diagnosis participated. Children were heterogeneous with regards to age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results indicate that all of the children showed significant improvements in adaptive functioning on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984). However, younger children (3 years old or younger) showed the least impairment at intake and the most improvement postintervention. This is one of the first large-scale community studies of PRT that included a diverse sample.