Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 9, Number 2, Spring 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel and Robert H. Horner
Social engagement with peers and stereotypic behavior of children with autism.
SoHyun Lee, Samuel L. Odom and Rachel Loftin.
Abstract: In this study, the authors examined the relationship between engagement in social interaction with peers and stereotypic behavior. Three children with autism with relatively high rates of stereotypic behavior and low rates of social engagement with peers participated in the study. Two typically developing peers learned to direct social initiations to each participant during structured play activities, which increased the frequency of peer social engagement for the children with autism. Collateral decreases in stereotypic behavior occurred for all three participants when the peer-mediated intervention was implemented, and the results generalized to a proximal play setting. Conditional probability analyses further documented this inverse relationship between social and stereotypic behavior. Simultaneous (i.e., motor and oral/vocal) and motor stereotypic behaviors were the most directly affected by the increase in social engagement. Social validity ratings documented the social importance of the changes in both social engagement and stereotypic behavior for the children with autism.
Use of brief functional analysis and intervention evaluation in public settings.
David Cihak, Paul A. Alberto and Laura D. Fredrick.
Abstract: Educational experience in the community provides students with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities the opportunity to learn and rehearse skills they need to participate fully in community environments. The degree to which students with intellectual disabilities participate in their communities is often dependent on their ability to demonstrate appropriate behaviors when in public settings. For students with intellectual disabilities who exhibit socially inappropriate behavior, access to community programs may be limited or even denied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the identification and selection of interventions for inappropriate social behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement in public community settings. Four high school-age students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities participated in a brief functional analysis to identify maintaining contingencies of target behaviors. Based on the resulting hypotheses, antecedent-based and response-based interventions were designed and compared. Results indicated that the antecedent-based intervention of self-operated auditory prompts worked as effectively as or better than the response-based intervention. In addition, teachers' social validity of intervention in public settings assessed the acceptability of both interventions. Teachers indicated that auditory prompts were socially acceptable for vocational training in public community settings.
Effects of the Behavior Education Program (BEP) on office discipline referrals of elementary school students.
Leanne S. Hawken, K. Sandra MacLeod and Linda Rawlings.
Abstract: The Behavior Education Program (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was implemented with high fidelity, led to a decrease in office discipline referrals for the majority of students who received the intervention, and had high social validity ratings. Limitations of the current study are presented, along with suggestions for future research.
Issues of personal dignity and social validity in schoolwide systems of positive behavior support.
Terrance M. Scott.
Abstract: This article provides an analysis of issues related to personal dignity and social validity in schools. Specifically, dignity is defined in terms of individual success and independence, while social validity is defined in terms of the system as a whole. These definitions are explored in the context of schoolwide systems of positive behavior support (PBS). Descriptions of schoolwide systems of PBS are used to analyze and detail procedures that maintain respect for personal dignity and social validity. In addition, processes for engaging persons in this discussion are critically analyzed. Future development and growth of PBS as a technology-based approach to developing self-determined, independent, and successful persons is discussed. Direction is suggested in the way we consider issues, define our values, and engage others in systemic change efforts.
Meta-analysis of the research on response cards: effects on test achievement, quiz achievement, participation, and off-task behavior.
Justus J. Randolph.
Abstract: In this meta-analysis, the author analyzed 18 response card articles, theses, or dissertations to determine the magnitude of effect that response card strategies have on test achievement, quiz achievement, class participation, and intervals of off-task behavior. The author also determined whether the type of response cards used or the presence or absence of ceiling effects had a differential effect on study outcomes. Using the traditional method of hand raising as a control condition, he found that response cards have large, statistically significant effect sizes for test achievement, quiz achievement, participation, and reduction in intervals of disruptive behavior. No significant difference was found between types of response cards used. Although the difference was not statistically significant, studies with ceiling effects had, on average, effect sizes that were notably lower than studies without ceiling effects. Place of publication, type of publication, and sample size were not significant moderators of effect sizes for academic achievement.