Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 9, Number 3, Summer 2007
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert H. Horner and Robert L. Koegel
Family implementation of positive behavior support for a child with autism: Longitudinal, single-case, experimental, and descriptive replication and extension.
Joseph M. Lucyshyn, Richard W. Albin, Robert H. Horner, Jane C. mann, James A. Mann, and Gina Wadsworth.
Abstract: This study examined the efficacy, social validity, and durability of a positive behavior support (PBS) approach with the family of a girl with autism and severe problem behavior. The study was conducted across a 10-year period beginning when the child was 5 years old. A multiple baseline across family routines design evaluated the functional relationship between parent implementation of a PBS plan and longitudinal improvements in child behavior and successful participation in routines. Daily indicator behavior data allowed us to assess generalized improvements in child behavior. An inventory of monthly community activities allowed us to assess changes in child quality of life. In addition, social validity and contextual fit were assessed. Results document that the intervention was associated with a 75% reduction in problem behavior, and that the effects were maintained across a 6-month to 7-year follow-up period. Associated outcomes included generalized improvements in child behavior and enhanced community activity patterns. Parents also rated the social validity and contextual fit of the approach highly. Results verify the efficacy and social validity of the approach and offer preliminary descriptive evidence of its durability. Contributions to the literature, implications, and future directions are discussed.
A picture is worth...Video self-modeling applications at school and home.
Abstract: Video self-modeling (VSM) is a relatively new technique for modifying and training behaviors and has accumulated a relatively impressive track record in the research literature. Using only positive examples, VSM gives persons the opportunity to view themselves performing a task just beyond their present functioning level via creative editing of videos using VCRs or video software. In this article, the author provides instructions on the two primary videotaping strategies for collecting content for self-modeling movies. These are accompanied by case studies illustrating the entire self-modeling process, from selecting behaviors to viewing the videos. The author conducted the case studies in his work with the Restructuring for Inclusive Environments technical assistance project. Suggested applications and caveats on the use of VSM are also presented.
Training classroom and resource preschool teachers to develop inclusive class interventions for children with disabilities: Generalization to new intervention targets.
Joel P. Hundert.
Abstract: Four preschool supervisors were individually trained in a collaborative team approach in which classroom and resource teachers together developed a plan to increase the peer interactions of the entire class, including children with disabilities. The purpose of the research was to assess the generalization of effects to a new program target (children's on-task behavior during circle time) and over time (3 months). The experimental phases of baseline, supervisor training, and follow-up were introduced in a multiple-baseline design across four preschool classes, each containing 2 children with disabilities. Behaviors of teachers, 8 children with disabilities, and 8 comparison children were measured during daily 20-min training sessions (indoor play periods) and generalization sessions (circle time). Results indicated that following supervisor training, teachers increased their focus on groups of children that included children with disabilities in both training and generalization sessions. After supervisor training, children with disabilities and comparison children increased their peer interactions during training sessions and their on-task behavior during circle time. Changes in teachers' and children's behaviors in both settings were maintained at the 3-month follow-up observation. Implications for teacher training and consultation are discussed.
Identifying barriers and facilitators in implementing schoolwide positive behavior support.
Don Kincaid, Karen Childs, Karen A. Blase, and Frances Wallace.
Abstract: As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used a systematic process to understand barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support by schools implementing at high and low levels of fidelity, and the degree to which the project could impact barriers and facilitators. Results indicate that schools implementing with low fidelity tend to identify practical, operational barriers, whereas schools implementing with high fidelity struggle with systems issues. Both high-implementing and low-implementing schools identified the same facilitators to implementation; however, they differed in their views of which facilitators the project could impact. Implications for state PBS project activities are discussed, along with suggestions for future data collection and providing a model of data-based decision making at a macro level.