Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 1, Number 1, Winter 1999
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Glen Dunlap and Robert L. Koegel .
Message from Periodicals Director
Judith K. Voress
Comprehensive Multisituational Intervention for Problem Behavior in the Community: Long-term Maintenance and Social Validation
Edward G. Carr, Len Levin, Gene McConnachie, Jane I. Carlson, Duane C. Kemp, Christopher E. Smith, and Darlene Magito McLaughlin
Assessment and intervention approaches for dealing with problem behavior need to be extended so that they can be effectively and comprehensively applied within the community. To meet assessment needs, the authors developed a three-component strategy: description (interview followed by direct observation), categorization (aggregating multiple instances of problem behavior into thematic groups, each characterized by a specific function), and verification (manipulating situational parameters to test the accuracy of the assessment data). To meet intervention needs, the authors employed a five-component, assessment-based, hypothesis-driven strategy consisting of rapport building, functional -communication training, tolerance for delay of reinforcement, choice, and embedding.
Following intervention, improvements in participants' lifestyle, communication, and problem behavior were noted. The intervention was practical in that parents, teachers, job coaches, and group home staff were able to efficiently implement it without compromising high levels of task engagement. Long-term maintenance of intervention effects (ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 years in duration) was also observed. Finally, 100 group home staff judged the effects to be socially valid in that problem behavior was rated as less severe and less dangerous, and as requiring less restraint following intervention. In light of these results, the authors discuss how future community-based intervention will require additional changes in assessment practices and intervention strategies and a redef-ini-tion of successful outcomes to include lifestyle change and life-span perspectives.
Support for Children with Developmental Disabilities in Full Inclusion Classrooms through Self Management Lynn Kern Koegel, Joshua K. Harrower, and Robert L. Koegel
The literature has suggested that without the implementation of support procedures, placements of children with severe disabilities in full-inclusion classrooms are often unsuccessful. This study assessed whether a support person who taught young elementary school students to use self-management procedures and then faded involvement with them would be effective in increasing these students' appropriate performance on schoolwork tasks and reducing disruptive behavior in full inclusion classrooms. The percentage of time the children engaged in appropriate performance of schoolwork tasks and disruptive behavior was recorded during in-class periods. Data were collected over a 9-month period in a multiple baseline design during the academic year. The results showed that implementation of self-management resulted in high levels of appropriate performance of schoolwork activities, negligible levels of disruptive behavior, and complete elimination of time spent in time-out. Following the intervention, both appropriate schoolwork performance and disruptive behavior exhibited by the children with severe disabilities were within the range of the typical children in the classroom.
Screening for Understanding: An Initial Line of Inquiry for School Based Settings. Sharon Lohrmann-O'Rourke, Tim Knoster, and Gregory Llewellyn
Education teams have the responsibility for implementing the critical components of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) into practice. For many people who are unfamiliar with the assessmentintervention design process, the comprehensiveness of FBA can appear overwhelming. Teams need a practical and time-efficient starting point to begin gathering initial information about problem situations. Screening for Understanding of Student Problem Behavior: An Initial Line of Inquiry is one example of an initial information-gathering format for beginning a comprehensive FBA. This article illustrates the use of the Initial Line of Inquiry within school-based settings when using a team planning process for students engaging in challenging behavior. A case illustration demonstrates the process that guides application of the Initial Line of Inquiry, along with key questions and guiding thoughts pertinent to the design of effective behavioral support plans for focus students.
The Perspectives of Five Stakeholder Groups on the Challenging Behavior of Individuals with Mental Retardation and/or Autism Michael B. Ruef, Ann P. Turnbull, H. R. Turnbull, and Denise Poston
Data from five focus groups, each representing a different stakeholder constituency interested in the challenging behavior of individuals with mental retardation and/or autism, were reported. Emergent themes across administrators and policy makers, families, friends, individuals with disabilities, and teachers and practitioners included current barriers faced; practical, positive solutions found; and preferences for helpful informational products concerning challenging behavior. Key recommendations focus on the implications of this information for research, training, and dissemination activities.
Moving to Italy
Victoria Budzinski McMullen