Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 1, Number 2, Spring 1999
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Robert L. Koegel & Glen Dunlap
Effects of Self-Monitoring and Self-Recruited Praise on Problem Behavior, Academic Engagement, and Work Completion in a Typical Classroom
Anne W. Todd, Robert H. Homer, and George Sugai
This study examines the relationship between self-monitoring plus self-recruited attention and problem behaviors, on-task behavior, overall teacher perception of student performance, task completion, and frequency of teacher praise. The research design employed an ABAB withdrawal analysis coupled with a two-series multiple baseline design across class periods for one fourth-grade student with learning disabilities and problem behavior in a general education classroom. The results indicate that implementation of self-monitoring combined with self-evaluation and self-recruitment of teacher attention was functionally related to a decrease in the frequency of problem behaviors, an increase in on-task behavior, and an increase in task completion. In addition, the intervention was associated with increased positive teacher perceptions of student performance. Results are discussed in terms of the application of (a) comprehensive, positive behavioral support in typical classrooms; (b) self-management strategies to reduce problem behaviors; and (c) expanded research outcomes to document behavior change with social significance.
A Demonstration of Behavioral Support for Young Children with Autism
Glen Dunlap and Lise Fox
Young children with autism sometimes display severe behavior problems that can cause great disruptions in family life and interfere with attempts to provide needed services. Strategies are needed to resolve these behavior problems in a manner that is effective, durable, and consistent with current approaches to positive, comprehensive, and inclusionary practice in early childhood intervention. This article provides a description of behavioral support as applied in the context of a family-centered early intervention program for young children with autism. Demonstration data are presented to illustrate the effects of the approach in reducing the problem behaviors of six children. The practices and data are discussed in the context of changing perspectives toward early intervention and the prospects of developing effective preventive strategies and functional deterrents to the emergence and occurrence of serious problem behaviors.
A Moral Framework for Analysis of the Controversy Over Aversive Behavioral Interventions for People with Severe Mental Retardation
George Singer, Bernard Gert, and Robert L. Koegel
This article applies a systematic analysis of everyday moral decision making to the controversy surrounding the use of aversive treatments for people with severe mental retardation. The authors' aim is to provide a framework for analyzing the issue, and they take a position against the use of aversive procedures. The analysis adds some new ideas to the debate. It provides a definition of aversive procedures based upon common moral rules. The concept of protection by the moral rules is discussed and the case made that people with severe mental retardation deserve the protection of the moral rules and that this right is historically new and tenous. The importance of symbols of dehumanization is discussed in light of this tenous condition. The idea of moral agency is applied in order to clarify the kinds of societal sanctions that are and are not appropriate when a person with severe mental retardation violates a moral rule. The authors argue that data are always relevant to moral decision making and that a mounting body of evidence indicates that nonaversive alternatives are available and can replace aversive procedures in all but a very small number of highly unusual cases.
A Review of Functional Assessment Research with Students With or At-Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: 1990 - present
Kathleen L. Lane, John Umbreit, and Margaret Beebe-Frankenberger
The present article reports information resulting from a review of 19 articles reporting studies conducted in the 1990s with a total of 62 participants who were identified as having, or being at risk for, emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Studies were included in this review only if (a) a functional assessment was conducted, (b) the participants were identified as having, or being at risk for, EBD, and (c) the study was published after 1989. Findings indicate that functional assessment research is being conducted with young children in special and general education settings with the use of single-case design methodologies. A review is made of the nine articles that reported findings from functional assessmentbased intervention studies. The review suggests that antecedent-based interventions, primarily curricular modifications, are most often examined. Results indicate that present research methodology includes important components essential to making valid conclusions from outcomes, and in generalizing findings. Directions for future research are discussed.
A Demonstration of Teaching Parents of Children with Autism How to Perform Functional Assessments to Plan Interventions for Extremely Disruptive Behaviors
William D. Frea and Susan L. Hepburn
Parents of children with autism often face unique challenges when attempting to understand and address their children's difficulty. Although professionals have used func-tional assessment to help design interventions that match the communicative intent of challenging behavior, parents often do not have this skill. This study investigated the ability of parents to learn the skills related to functional assessment and independently create interventions. The goals of the study were to (a) assess the ability of parents to use a manual in learning to perform a descriptive functional assessment, (b) identify whether the parents could generate functionally equivalent alternative behaviors, and (c) evaluate the parents' ability to independently teach the new behavior. Two families were assessed within controlled case studies. The results indicated that one family was immediately successful in utilizing functional assessment information to independently create an effective intervention, and the second family required a brief instructional session on prompting procedures to effectively implement the intervention.
Using Self-Management Strategies and Reinforcement to Increase On-Task Behavior of a High-Functioning Student with Autism in a General Education Classroom
Kevin Callahan and Joyce Rademacher
A multiple-baseline design was used to investigate the effectiveness of using self-management strategies and reinforcement to increase the on-task behaviors of a high-functioning second-grade student with autism who was fully included in a general education classroom. Results of data collected over 9 weeks indicated that when self-management and reinforcement procedures were implemented, rates of on-task behavior were significantly higher than during baseline. Improvements in independent academic and behavioral functioning were also noted. Further research is recommended to determine the viability of using self-management procedures in full-inclusion settings for students with a wider range of skills and deficits
Living in Italy: Addressing the Complexities of Comprehensive Lifestyle Support.
Victoria Budzinski McMullen