Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 1, Number 4, Fall 1999
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Glen Dunlap & Robert L. Koegel
Using an Instructional Intervention to Reduce Problem and Off-task Behaviors
Young-Yon Lee, George Sugai, and Robert Horner
Functional relationships between the presentation of easy versus difficult math tasks and the occurrence of problem and off-task behaviors of students with emotional or behavioral disorder (EBD) were investigated. Subsequently, the effects of academic instruction on the accuracy of responses to difficult tasks and the occurrence of problem and off-task behaviors were assessed. The results of independent experiments conducted with two third graders indicated (a) the existence of functional relationships between the presentation of difficult tasks and occurrences of problem and off-task behaviors among students with EBD and (b) the effectiveness of academic instruction on reduction of escape-motivated problem and off-task behaviors.
Training Responding Behaviors in Students with Autism Using Videotaped Self-Modeling
Tom Buggey, Kristina Toombs, Pia Gardener, and Michelle Cervetti
Videotaped self-modeling (VSM) has been developed as a means to allow participants to view themselves in situations where they are performing at a more advanced level than they typically function. VSM has been effectively used to train positive behaviors and to reduce unwanted behaviors across a range of ages and behaviors; however, studies of VSM have not been conducted with students with autism Our study was designed to analyze the effects of VSM on the acquisition and maintenance of appropriate verbal responses to questions by children with autism. A multiple baseline design across students was used to evaluate performance. The results indicated that the three participants almost doubled their rates of appropriate responding to questions during play situations. The findings suggest that VSM may constitute a positive behavior change intervention worthy of consideration in a treatment regimen.
Educational Inclusion of Children with Severe Disabilities
Joshua K. Harrower
The educational inclusion of children with disabilities has long been a topic of controversy. In this article the relevant research literature is reviewed in order to present a rationale for the educational inclusion of children with disabilities, a summary of the effects of inclusive placement on the social and academic performance of children with and without disabilities, a summary of the research exploring the impact of educators and parents on the process of inclusion, and an evaluation of recent approaches for facilitating the educational inclusion of children with disabilities.
Increasing Homework Completion by Incorporating Student Interests
L. Michelle Hinton and Lee Kern
Incorporating topics of student interest into nonpreferred academic activities is a strategy that has been used successfully to increase engagement and decrease problematic behavior. In the current study, we included topics of student interest in homework assignments. The intervention was applied across a middle school classroom of fifth-grade students. During baseline, homework completion averaged approximately 60%. After incorporating student interests into assignments, homework completion increased to over 95%. The effects were replicated using a reversal design, with similar percentages of homework completion.
Family-Centered, Assessment-Based Intervention to Improve Behavior During an Early Morning Routine
Shelley Clarke, Glen Dunlap, and Bobbie Vaughn
This article presents a demonstration of assessment-based intervention conducted in a family context to improve the responding of a boy with Asperger syndrome during the early morning routine of getting dressed and ready for school. Following a process of functional assessment, we developed a multicomponent intervention package, which was implemented by the boy's mother. We used a reversal design to demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention package. The results showed that the intervention produced a substantial reduction of problem behaviors, higher levels of on-task responding, and a clear decrease in the length of time required to complete the morning routine. This empirical analysis provides another demonstration of the efficacy of a family-centered approach of assessment-based positive interventions in natural family contexts.
Using Functional Behavioral Assessment to Develop Effective Intervention Plans: Practical Classroom Application
Terrance M. Scott and C. Michael Nelson
Functional behavioral assessment was mandated in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 as a behavioral evaluation for students who display behaviors that are likely to result in school exclusion. Functional behavioral assessment is not intended to be used solely as a reaction to chronic and serious behaviors. Rather, functional behavioral assessment is most effective when used proactively at the first display of challenging behaviors by students. Through case examples, this article presents step-by-step procedures for conducting functional behavioral assessment and developing effective intervention plans for students in public school classrooms.
FORUM Families, School Collaboration, and Shared Vision in the Context of IDEA
Janine Peck Stichter and Jean MacNeill Caldicott