Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 15, Number 2, April 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Impact of Pivotal Response Training Group Therapy on Stress and Empowerment in Parents of Children With Autism
Mendy Boettcher Minjarez, Emma M. Mercier, Sharon E. Williams, and ANotnio Y. Hadan
Parents of children with autism are increasingly being considered as primary agents of intervention for their children. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether participating in a pivotal response training (PRT) group therapy program for parents of children with autism influenced related aspects of parents’ lives, namely, their levels of stress and empowerment. Seventeen families participated in a 10-week therapy group designed to train parents to use PRT, with a specific focus on their children’s language deficits. Measures of empowerment and stress were obtained at baseline and at the end of the trial. Ratings on the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form and the Family Empowerment Scale showed significant changes from pre- to posttreatment, indicating that parents felt higher levels of empowerment and lower levels of stress after the 10-week group program. Notably, stress related to parent–child interactions was most reduced. Possible causal factors and implications are discussed.
Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students with Excape-Maintained Problem Behavior
Amanda K. Sanford and Robert H. Horner
The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during reading instruction participated. Functional behavioral assessment and oral reading fluency assessment indicated that each of the students (a) was at risk for reading difficulties and read at the frustration level in text used for reading instruction and (b) had escape-maintained problem behavior during instruction sessions. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across students was used to assess the effects of matching reading instructional level (e.g., reducing the aversive level of instruction) on academic engagement and problem behavior. Matching the reading instructional level to the skill level of the students was associated with academic engagement increases and problem behavior decreases for three of the students. The fourth student demonstrated improvement during baseline that made effects of the intervention difficult to assess. Conceptual implications and suggestions for integrating behavioral and academic supports are explored.
Effects of Multimedia Goal-Setting Instruction on Students' Knowledge of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction and Disruptive Behavior
Valerie L. Mazzotti, David W. Test, and Charles L. Wood
Students at risk for, or with, emotional disturbance during preadolescence struggle to adjust socially, behaviorally, and academically and often make choices about relationships that support problem behaviors. Research suggests explicitly teaching self-determination skills as early as preschool may prevent referral to special education with a label of emotional disturbance. This study examined the effects of a multimedia goal-setting intervention on students’ knowledge of the self-determined learning model of instruction and disruptive behavior. Results indicated a functional relationship between the independent variable and dependent variables. Limitations, suggestions for future research, and implications for practice are provided.
Use of a Daily Report Card in an Intervention Package Involving Home-School Communication to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in Preschoolers
TereseJ. LeBel, Sandra M. Chafouleas, Preston A. Britner, and Brandi Simonsen
The effectiveness of a daily report card in an intervention package involving home-school communication to decrease disruptive behavior in preschoolers was investigated. A sample of four preschool-aged children in two classrooms served as participants. Teachers rated behavior three times daily for each participant using a daily report card. Ratings were shared with the student and then parent, and contingent reinforcement involving positive praise and stickers was provided. A concurrent multiple baseline across-participants design was employed, with results demonstrating decreases in disruptive behavior for all students. Overall, results indicated the daily report card intervention with a home-school component to be an effective method for decreasing problem behavior in a preschool setting.
The Effect of the Extinction Procedure in Function-Based Intervention
Donna M. Janney, John Umbreit, Jolenea B. Ferro, Carl J. Liaupsin, and Kathleen L. Lane
In this study, we examined the contribution of the extinction procedure in function-based interventions implemented in the general education classrooms of three at-risk elementary-aged students. Function-based interventions included antecedent adjustments, reinforcement procedures, and function-matched extinction procedures. Using a combined ABC and reversal phase design (A-B-A-B-C-B), a functional relation between the full intervention and dramatically improved levels of on-task behavior were clearly established. On removal of the extinction procedure, on-task behavior rapidly dropped to lower levels. Reinstatement of the full intervention occurred following the partial intervention condition. In every case, on-task levels rapidly improved. Using the Intervention Rating Profile–15 and Children’s Intervention Rating Profile, acceptability ratings were highest for full intervention. Limitations and implications for further research are presented.
Cloudy With a Chance of Sarcasm or Sunny With High Expectations: Using Best Practice Language to Strengthen Postive Behavior Intervention and SUpport Efforts
Hal Holloman and PeggyH. Yates
What’s the forecast in your classroom? Are you forecasting cloudy with a chance of sarcasm or sunny with high expectations? A teacher’s Language of Practice holds the key to creating a climate of mutual respect in our schools. This article will explore the power and promise of “teacher language,” and how it can be used to promote respect and build positive relationships. We present the Best Practice Language (BPL) framework with its 11 word categories to assist educators in determining whether their professional Language of Practice is forecasting respect to others. This BPL framework is a foundation to strengthen Positive Behavior Intervention and Support efforts, and gives educators a practical method to transform their Language of Practice into BPL for promoting respectful schools.