Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 14, Number 1, January 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Illinois Statewide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Evolution and Impact on Student Outcomes Across Years
Brandi Simonsen, Lucille Eber, Anne C. Black, George Sugai, Holly Lewandowski, Barbara Sims, and Diane Myers
More than 1,000 Illinois schools are implementing schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) to enhance outcomes for students and staff. Consequently, Illinois established layered support structures to facilitate scaling up SWPBS. This paper describes the development of this infrastructure and presents the results of HLM analyses exploring the effects of implementing SWPBS, with and without fidelity across time, on student behavior and academic outcomes (office discipline referrals, suspensions, and state-wide test scores in reading and math) for a sample of 428 Illinois schools implementing SWPBS. Results indicate that (a) most schools implemented with fidelity and maintained or improved student performance across time and (b) implementation fidelity was associated with improved social outcomes and academic outcomes in math. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Kindergarten Reading Skill Level and Change as Risk Factors for Chronic Problem Behavior
Kent McIntosh, Carol Sadler, and Jacqueline A. Brown
In this study, the authors explored the effect of prereading skills at the start of kindergarten and change in skills during kindergarten on response to Tier I (universal) Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in Grade 5. A longitudinal data set of 473 students, including Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures at the start, middle, and end of kindergarten and office discipline referrals in Grade 5, was used to determine whether reading skills at school entry or change in reading skills over the course of kindergarten were more predictive of chronic problem behavior in Grade 5. Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that low initial phonological awareness predicted problem behavior, but including skill growth in the model resulted in significantly improved and more accurate prediction. Results are discussed in terms of early screening and intervention and reducing risk for problem behavior through quality Tier I reading instruction in kindergarten.
Treatment Integrity of Interventions With Children in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions From 1999 to 2009
Lisa M. Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M. Dobey, and Katie L. Gritter
For more than 10 years, the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions has published, among other types of articles, behavioral intervention outcome studies related to positive behavior support. Operationally defining interventions is important to facilitating replication studies and adoption of intervention in applied settings. Furthermore, treatment integrity data are necessary to make valid claims that changes in outcomes resulted from intervention implementation and are thus essential to the internal validity of intervention outcome research. Reviews of treatment outcome research in related fields (e.g., applied behavior analysis) indicate that although many researchers operationally define interventions, a majority of researchers fail to report treatment integrity data. The purpose of this study was to review the treatment integrity data reported in all experimental intervention studies published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions between 1999 and 2009. Results indicate that in recent years, a majority of published studies include a definition of the independent variable but do not provide quantitative treatment integrity data.
The Effects of Prompting Appropriate Behavior on the Off-Task Behavior of Two Middle School Students
Aimee Faul, Karoline Stepensky, and Brandi Simonsen
Prompting is a simple strategy that has been demonstrated to increase appropriate (and decrease inappropriate) behavior when used (a) as a stand-alone strategy with preschool students and individuals with disabilities and (b) in combination with other strategies (e.g., active supervision) with K-12 students in general education settings. Until now, no studies have specifically investigated the effectiveness of prompting as a stand-alone strategy in a general education setting. This study used a single-subject alternating treatment design, with a baseline phase, to explore the relationship between the presence (or absence) of prompting and off-task behavior of two male middle school students in general education. Study results document a decrease in off-task behavior with prompting. Results and implications are discussed in light of limitations.
Integrating Classwide Early Literacy Intervention and Behavioral Supports: A Pilot Investigation
Robert J. Volpe, Gregory I. Young, Maureen G. Piana, and Anne F. Zaslofsky
Kindergarten Peer Assisted Learning Strategies and directly teaching and reinforcing behavioral expectations are empirically supported interventions for building early literacy skills and increasing on-task behavior, respectively. Previous research has not investigated the application of both academic and behavior interventions simultaneously to prevent reading failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of KPALS with and without a classroom management strategy (CMS) consisting of posting and teaching classroom expectations and reinforcing them via a token economy for 20 kindergarten students from an urban elementary school in the northeastern United States. Results indicated an increase in the level of active engagement and teacher-directed instruction with the implementation of KPALS and CMS. Moreover, a clear improvement in students’ academic skills occurred with the addition of the CMS. Future research and practical implications are discussed.