Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 15, Number 1, January 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
The Effects of Self-Monitoring on Teachers' Use of Specific Praise
Brandi Simonsen, Ashley S. MacSuga, Lindsay M. Fallon, and George Sugai
Teachers typically enter the field with limited training in classroom management, and research demonstrates that training alone does not result in improved practice. Typically, researchers have relied on time-intensive training packages that include performance feedback to improve teachers’ use of classroom management practices; however, initial evidence suggests that self-management may be an effective and efficient alternative. In this study, the authors directly compared the effects of three different self-monitoring conditions (tally, count, and rate) and no self-monitoring on five middle school teachers’ rate of specific praise using an alternating treatments design. The authors also included baseline and follow-up phases to descriptively explore the effects of self-monitoring across time. Results indicate that noting each instance of specific praise by either tallying or using a counter resulted in optimal performance, and teachers preferred using a counter. Additional study results, limitations, and implications are discussed.
Supporting Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Developing a University-Based Respite Care Program
Corinne M. Murphy and Claire E. Verden
The stress involved in parenting can be overwhelming; the stress involved in parenting a child with autism can be consuming. The following article is a program description of a university endeavor to provide temporary relief (respite care) to local area family members caring for a child with autism. This endeavor included training university undergraduate students in the characteristics of autism and behavior-based principles, pairing the students with a family in need of respite support, and finally providing free respite care to families. This article discusses the planning, implementation, and initial outcomes for a university-based respite care program designed to meet the need for autism respite services in a suburban community. The benefits to both families and students are discussed as well as a thorough description of the program protocols so that others may implement similar efforts to meet this demand.
External and Internal Coaches' Perspectives About Overcoming Barriers to Universal Interventions
Sharon Lohrmann, Stacy D. Martin, and Sonia Patil
School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been widely adopted in schools across the nation. One reason might be the availability of statewide training and implementation support infrastructures in many states across the country. However, even with the availability of support, some schools experience barriers typical to systems change activities. The research purpose of this study was to investigate how problems with staff and administrator buy-in of the universal intervention manifest and are resolved from the perspective of internal and external coaches. A second purpose of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences in how external and internal coaches view staff buy-in issues and the process for research. A total of 18 participants (9 external and 9 internal SWPBS coaches) participated in the study. Findings suggest commonalities across the types of (a) barriers participants encountered, (b) climate and systems influences, and (c) strategies used to resolve barriers. The findings also suggest the importance of staff having firsthand successes and the need for universal teams to “stick with” implementation over a period of several years before changes in staff resistance were evident.
Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Idenitfying Areas for Enhancement
Wendy Reinke, Keith C. Herman, and Melissa Stormont
This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings indicate that classrooms had posted positively stated classroom rules at high rates, whereas teacher use of specific praise and the ratio of positive to negative interactions were less than optimal. Furthermore, classroom teachers with higher rates of general praise were found to report being more efficacious with regard to classroom management. In turn, teachers in classrooms with higher rates of disruptive behavior reported feeling less efficacious. In addition, teachers with lower rates of positive to negative interaction, who used higher rates of harsh reprimands and had higher rates of disruptions, reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion. Implications for developing supports to assist teachers struggling with universal classroom management strategies are described.
Gender Differences in Reading Skill and Problem Behavior in Elementary School
Kent McIntosh, Wendy M. Reinke, Joanna L. Kelm, and Carol A. Sadler
The purpose of this study was to explore interactions among reading skill, problem behavior, and gender across elementary school. A 6-year, longitudinal study (N = 473) was conducted to identify the relations among these variables and change in relations from kindergarten to Grade 5. Students’ reading skills and levels of problem behavior were examined. Mixed model analyses of variance indicated no differences in reading skill by gender, but a significant gender interaction for problem behavior. Correlations by grade level showed weak, negative correlations between reading and behavior for female students and statistically significant, negative correlations for male students. Results did not support the need to differentiate reading instruction by gender but suggest that multimethod assessment of problem behavior would be beneficial for all students.