Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 14, Number 3, July 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Using Perseverative Interests to Improve Interactions Between Adolescents With Autism and Their Typical Peers in School Settings
Robert L. Koegel, Rosy Fredeen, Sunny Kim, John Danial, Derek Rubinstein, and Lynn Koegel
The literature suggests that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) typically are not socially engaged during unstructured school activities and do not initiate social activities with typically developing peers. This study assessed whether implementing socialization opportunities in the form of lunch clubs based around aspects of the adolescents with ASD’s perseverative interests would promote positive and direct social interaction between the target adolescent and their typically developing peers. A repeated measures multiple baseline experimental design (with two reversals) was implemented across participants. During baseline measures, the participants did not show social engagement or initiations. During intervention, results showed large increases in both social engagement and initiations. These results have implications for understanding variables related to social development in autism.
Secondary and Tertiary Support System in Schoos Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: A Preliminary Descriptive Analysis
Katrina J. Debnam, Elise T. Pas, and Catherine P. Bradshaw
More than 14,000 schools nationwide have been trained in School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS), which aims both to reduce behavior problems and to promote a positive school climate. However, there remains a need to understand the programs and services provided to children who are not responding adequately to the universal level of support. Data from 45 elementary schools implementing SWPBIS were collected using the School-wide Evaluation Tool and the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (I-SSET) to assess the use of school-wide, Tier 2, and Tier 3 support systems. The I-SSET data indicated that nearly all schools implemented federally mandated Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports (e.g., functional behavioral assessment, student support teams), but few schools implemented other evidence-based programs for students with more intensive needs. School-level demographic characteristics were correlated with the implementation of some aspects of universal SWPBIS, but not with the Tier 2 or 3 supports. Implications of these findings for professional development are discussed.
Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices
Lori Lynass, Shu-Fei Tsai, Taylor. Richman, and Douglas Cheney
The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings. This study examined the types and frequency of schools’ social expectations and behavioral indicators as they were written into their behavior matrices. Participants from 155 schools located in 12 regionally representative states provided a sample of their behavioral matrix. Analyses of the matrices showed that three social expectations (respect, responsibility, and safety) occurred in more than 60% of behavior matrices. In addition, behavior indicators (e.g., walk to the right, quiet voices, hands to self) were identified for the four most frequent social expectations. Regional and state comparisons of social expectation frequency indicate homogeneity of categories across the country. Based on the findings, implications and suggestions for future research and practice are discussed.
Functional Communication Training Without Extinction Using Concurrent Schedules of Differing Magnitudes of Reinforcement in Classrooms
Dawn H. Davis, Laura D. Fredrick, Paul A. Alberto, and Robert Gama
This study investigated the effects of functional communication training (FCT) implemented with concurrent schedules of differing magnitudes of reinforcement in lieu of extinction to reduce inappropriate behaviors and increase alternative mands. Participants were four adolescent students diagnosed with severe emotional and behavior disorders (SEBD), and mild to severe intellectual disabilities. Functional analyses revealed inappropriate behaviors as escape maintained. During subsequent FCT, the reinforcement provided for inappropriate behaviors was escape from task for 30 s (SR−). The reinforcement for the alternative mand was a 30-s escape from task during which access to a preferred activity was provided (SR−/PA). Results for three of the participants who had mild to moderate intellectual disabilities were highly successful. Time on task and generalization data also were recorded for two of the participants All sessions were implemented in the participants’ natural classrooms by their classroom teachers, without the adverse side effects of extinction.
Class-Wide Positive Behavior Support and Group COntingencies: Examining a Positive Variation of the Good Behavior Game
Rober A. Wright, and Barry L. McCurdy
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a powerful group contingency with a history of documented empirical support. The purpose of this study was to compare two interdependent group contingencies, the GBG and a positive variation, the Caught Being Good Game (CBGG), in a school implementing school-wide positive behavior support. A kindergarten and fourth-grade classroom teacher with 17 and 20 students, respectively, implemented both versions of the game in a counterbalanced fashion. Using a withdrawal design, results showed similar effects on disruptive and on-task behaviors. The CBGG is discussed as an effective variation of the GBG that is acceptable to both teachers and students.
Three Validity Studies of the Daily Progress Report in Relationship to the Check, Connect, and Expect Intervention
Scott A. Stage, Doug Cheney, Lori Lynass, Christina Mielenz, and Andrea Flower
Elementary students (N = 104) at risk for severe behavior problems or with special education eligibility participated in three validity studies of the daily progress report (DPR) used in a Tier 2 behavioral intervention known as Check, Connect, and Expect (CCE). In Study 1, the relationship between teachers’ ratings of students’ externalizing problem behavior and students’ DPR scores was established. In Study 2, behavior specialists’ use of the DPR to make student treatment decisions in the CCE program was partially validated. The utility of placing students with low DPR percentages into interventions based on functional behavior assessment (FBA) was validated. In Study 3, the treatment duration of 4 weeks above the 75th percentile on the DPR proved to be an efficacious treatment outcome predictor versus 8 weeks duration, which was originally recommended in the CCE protocol. Future implementation of the CCE program would suggest assigning students who meet the 4-week DPR criterion to the self-monitoring phase of the intervention, allowing behavior specialists more time to facilitate individualized FBA-based interventions for students who fail to respond to the basic intervention.