Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 15, Number 3, July 2013
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
Positive Family Intervention for Severe Challenging Behavior I: A Multisite Randomized Clinicial Trial
V. Mark Durand, Meme Hieneman, Shelley Clarke, Mo Wang, and Melissa L. Rinaldi
The present study was a multisite randomized clinical trial assessing the effects of adding a cognitive-behavioral intervention to positive behavior support (PBS). Fifty-four families who met the criteria of (a) having a child with a developmental disability, (b) whose child displayed serious challenging behavior (e.g., aggression, self-injury, tantrums), and (c) who scored high on a measure of parental pessimism were randomly assigned to either PBS intervention or a combination of PBS and optimism training for parents (positive family intervention [PFI]). A manualized approach to both interventions was used for eight weekly individual sessions. Both groups improved in scores of parental pessimism as well as on standardized measures and direct observations of child challenging behavior. The PFI intervention resulted in significantly improved scores on the General Maladaptive Index of the Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised when compared with the PBS alone group. No differences in attrition were observed across the two different approaches. Importantly, significant improvements in child behavior at home were achieved through a clinic-based approach. Implications for working with families who may be less likely to benefit from parent training are discussed.
Project SEACH for Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Increasing Competitive Employment On Transition From High School
Paul Wehman, Carol Schall, Jennifer McDonough, Alissa Molinelli, Erin Riehle, Whitney Ham, and Weston R. Thiss
Supporting youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the transition to adulthood is challenging. This article provides a description of how Project SEARCH, a model transition program for youth with disabilities, was used to help youth with ASD gain competitive employment. This article includes two case studies and a thorough description of the additional supports provided to increase successful employment on graduation from high school. Key Project SEARCH program components include setting a goal for employment, providing successive intensive internships in a community business, and assuring collaboration between school and adult services staff. Supports specific to students with ASD include providing intensive instruction in social, communication, and job skills; visual supports; and work routine and structure. These supports are described in the provided case studies.
Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Behavior: The Social Validity of Social Stories™and Comic Strip Conversations
Tiffany L. Hutchins and Patricia A. Prelock
This article describes a family-centered collaborative approach to the development and socially valid assessment of Social Stories™ and comic strip conversations (CSCs) for supporting the social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventeen children with ASD (ages 4–12 years) participated in either an immediate or a wait-intervention control group. Parents’ perceptions of the effects of Social Stories™ and CSCs to promote more appropriate social behaviors were compared across baseline, intervention, and withdrawal phases of study. Visual analyses of subjective ratings indicated that the intervention was effective for 13 of 17 children (i.e., for 76.5% of cases). Perceived effects of treatment were linked only to the variable of verbal mental age with a minimum age of 3 years predicting success. The authors argue that Social Stories™ and CSCs lead to socially valid outcomes. Although there are exceptions, they are most likely to be effective for addressing social behaviors in the context of interpersonal conflicts when children demonstrate a minimum verbal age of 3 years. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
Training Paraprofessional to Pacilitate Social Interactions Between CHildren With Autism and Their Typically Developing Peers
Eileen Klein Feldman and Rosy Matos
To support children with autism in inclusive classrooms, schools are increasingly utilizing paraprofessionals. However, research suggests that paraprofessionals often lack sufficient training and may inadvertently hinder the social interactions between children with disabilities and their peers. This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to empirically investigate whether paraprofessionals could learn to implement social facilitation procedures based on Pivotal Response Treatment. Results indicated that the paraprofessionals learned to utilize the social facilitation procedures with fidelity and generalized the techniques to untrained activities. Furthermore, once the paraprofessionals met the fidelity criteria, decreases in hovering and uninvolved behavior and increases in social facilitation and monitoring were observed. Likewise, the reciprocal social behavior of the children with autism increased rapidly.
The Use of Trial-Based Functional Analysis in Public School Classrooms for Two Students With Developmental Disabilities
Mandy J. Rispoli, Heather S. Davis, Fara D. Goodwyn, and Síglia Camargo
Analogue functional analyses are a well-researched means of determining behavioral function in research and clinical contexts. However, conducting analogue functional analyses in school settings can be problematic and may lead to inconclusive results. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of a trial-based functional analysis with analogue functional analysis conducted within public school classrooms. Two individuals with developmental disabilities participated. Trial-based functional analyses produced clear behavioral functions for both participants, whereas analogue functional analysis results were inconclusive. Implications for practice and future research are presented.