Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 14, Number 4, October 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
A Contextual Consideration of Culture and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
George Sugai, Breda V. O'Keefe, and Lindsay M. Fallon
Students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds have historically experienced poor outcomes related to academic achievement, special education, school discipline and climate, and juvenile justice. Differences between home and school cultures likely contribute to these outcomes. Evidence-based practices in schools are promoted to improve the academic and social outcomes for all students, but attention must be paid to cultural factors when implementing practices. School-wide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) is a systems approach to promoting evidence-based practices to affect important social and academic outcomes for all students. The purpose of this article is to consider culture within the implementation context of SWPBS. To achieve this purpose, we adopt and describe a contextual perspective on culture that is based on behavioral theory and principles of behavior analysis, and incorporate findings from a review of the literature related to culture and student behavior.
Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Review of Current Literature
Lindsay M. Fallon, Bred V. O'Keefe, and George Sugai
A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been implemented with varied levels of integrity and varied outcomes. Third, students who spend more time outside the classroom because of disciplinary consequences are at increased risk for negative outcomes, such as diminished academic identity, deficient academic skills, and higher attrition. The school-wide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) framework has been implemented in numerous settings with student populations representing a variety of cultures. A literature review and concept article were developed concurrently and were found to inform each other. In this study, a review of existing literature on culturally and contextually relevant strategies for behavior management in schools was conducted. Based on this review, general recommendations are presented for practitioners, personnel preparers, policy makers, and researchers, especially, in the context of implementing SWPBS.
Improving Social Engagement and Initiations Between Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Peers in Inclusive Settings
Lynn K. Koegel, Ty W. Vernon, Robert L. Koegel, Brittany L. Koegel, and Anne W. Paullin
Research suggests that incorporating the circumscribed ritualistic interests of children with autism as a theme of activities can improve their socialization. The current study assessed whether socialization would improve if more general interests of children on the autism spectrum that would also be of interest to their typical peers were incorporated into activities. Three children with autism, who were included in regular education classes but did not seek out or interact with peers prior to intervention, participated. Data were collected in the context of a multiple baseline across-participants design, with a reversal for one child. Activities that were identified to be of interest to the study participants and their typical peers were implemented as clubs twice weekly during regular lunchtime periods. Results showed that all three children demonstrated large increases in their time engaged with peers as a result of the activities, with minimal training of the interventionist and without any specialized training of the children with autism or their peers. Furthermore, their untargeted verbal initiations greatly improved over baseline levels and often approximated the levels of their peers. Implications for further improving peer social interactions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed.
Perceived Barriers and Enablers to Implementing Individualized Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports in School Settings
Linda M. Bambara, Alisa Goh, Lee Kern, and Grace Caskie
Identifying factors perceived to either hinder or support the implementation of individualized positive behavior interventions and supports (IPBIS) is essential for promoting sustainable practice. This survey study examined the extent to which school-based professionals (n = 293) experienced barriers and enablers and examined their perceived level of impact on hindering or supporting the implementation of IPBIS in schools. Results indicated that the most problematic barriers were also the most experienced by respondents and consisted of factors largely related to beliefs, time, and training. Most professionals reported enablers to provide moderate to substantial support, but few were frequently experienced by respondents in schools. Professionals serving as IPBIS team leaders rated enablers related to training and ongoing supports higher in terms of impact than regular team members. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Evaluation of a SIbling-Mediated Imitation Intervention for Young Children with Autism
Katherine M. Walton and Brooke Ingersoll
Parents and peers have been successful at implementing interventions targeting social interactions in children with autism; however, few interventions have trained siblings as treatment providers. This study used a multiple-baseline design across six sibling dyads (four children with autism) to evaluate the efficacy of sibling-implemented reciprocal imitation training. All six typically developing siblings were able to learn and use contingent imitation, four of the six siblings were able to learn and use linguistic mapping, and all six siblings increased their use of at least one component of the imitation training procedure. Three of the four children with autism showed increases in overall imitation and all four showed evidence of increases in joint engagement. Parents and siblings reported high satisfaction with the intervention, and ratings by naïve observers indicated significant changes from pre- to posttreatment. These results suggest that sibling-implemented reciprocal imitation training may be a promising intervention for young children with autism.