Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 12, Number 1, January 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
What's Inside: Highlights From This Issue
Mark Durand and Robert L. Koegel
Edward G. Carr (1947-2009)
Mark Durand, Robert L. Koegel, Lynn Kern Koegel, Glen Dunlap, Ann Turnbull, and Rob Horner
Sidney W. Bijou
Russell Lang, Robert L. Koegel, and Lynn Kern Koegel
Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A Standardized Model of School-Based Behavioral Intervention
Glen Dunlap, Rose Iovannone, Kelly J. Wilson, Donald K. Kincaid, and Phillip Strain
Although there is a substantial empirical foundation for the basic intervention components of behavior analysis and positive behavior support (PBS), the field still lacks a standardized program model of individualized PBS suitable for widespread application by school personnel. This article provides a description of a standardized PBS model that is in the process of development and large-scale evaluation. The "Prevent-Teach-Reinforce" (PTR) model is designed to meet the behavior support needs of students with serious behavior challenges in a broad range of school settings. Included in this article are an overview of the model’s components and implementation process, two case examples, and a discussion of the model’s status and future directions.
The Use of a Self-Directed Learning Program to Provide Introductory Training in Pivotal Response Treatment to Parents of Children With Autism
Nicolette Nefdt, Robert Koegel, George Singer, and Michael Gerber
There is increasing demand for access to effective interventions for families who have children with autism. Self-directed learning models have been successfully used with other populations as a way to reduce the service-need discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, through a randomized clinical trial, whether the use of a self-directed learning program could result in changes in behavior for parents and their children with autism. Results indicated significant differences between treatment and control groups at posttest on all of the dependent measures. Furthermore, all of the parents who completed the self-directed learning program reported high ratings of satisfaction. The data suggest the efficacy and effectiveness of a self-directed learning program to serve as an initial step toward providing intervention for parents with children with autism.
Teaching Social Communication: A Comparison of Naturalistic Behavioral and Development, Social Pragmatic Approaches for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Brooke R. Ingersoll
There are a variety of effective treatments designed for increasing social communication in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Two such treatments, naturalistic behavioral and developmental, social-pragmatic/relationshipbased interventions, differ in their underlying philosophy yet share many similarities in their implementation. They also exhibit critical differences that may affect their effectiveness with children with ASD. This article provides a discussion of the similarities and differences between these two approaches. Based on this comparison, it recommends new research directions that should lead to the development of more effective social-communication interventions for young children with ASD.
Patterns in Office Referral Data by Grade, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender
Joy S. Kaufman, Sarah S. Jaser, Ellen L. Vaughan, Jesse S. Reynolds, John Di Donato, Stanley N. Bernard, and Maria Hernandez-Brereton
Research supports that office referral data is useful in informing programmatic decisions and planning interventions such as Positive Behavior Supports (PBS). Knowledge of patterns of office referrals may facilitate development of interventions that target specific groups. This study examines patterns in office referrals within an urban district by gender, race/ ethnicity and grade. Findings reveal that there are differences by grade that appear to be related to developmental level, with more referrals for aggression in younger students (grades K-6), disrespectful behavior in middle school students (grades 7-8), and attendance problems in high school students. Gender differences in the rate and type of referrals were found, with significantly more referrals for boys’ delinquent/aggressive behavior, which may relate to how schools define unacceptable behavior and the data collection method. Finally, there were significantly more referrals for African American/black students than Hispanic students, suggesting that schools consider racial differences when developing behavioral expectations.
The Impact of Training on the Accuracy of Teacher-Completed Direct Behavior Ratings (DBRs)
Teresa J. LeBel, Stephen P. Kilgus, Amy M. Briesch, and Sandra Chafouleas
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three levels of training (direct, indirect, and none) on teachers’ ability to accurately rate video of student behavior. Direct and indirect training groups received instructional sessions on direct behavior ratings (DBRs), with the direct training group receiving opportunities for practice and feedback. Each training group viewed a video of a typical classroom environment and then rated the proportion of time the student displayed disruptive behavior and academic engagement. Accuracy was examined through comparison of the teachers’ ratings with direct observation data. Teacher acceptability of using DBRs was also assessed. Overall, the results suggested that the most intensive level of training (i.e., direct) did not improve the accuracy with which teachers rated behaviors using DBRs. Limitations and future implications are discussed.