Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 11, Number 4, October 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
What's Inside: Highlights From This Issue
Mark Durand and Robert L. Koegel
In Memoriam: Ursula Arceneaux Markey
Generalized Effects of Video Modeling on Establishing Instructional Stimulus Control in Children With Autism: Results of a Preliminary Study
Christos K. Nikopoulos, Caroline Canavan, and Panagiota Nikopoulou-Smyrni
Video modeling has been suggested as a powerful treatment tool that has concentrated on increasing a variety of skills in children with autism. However, it has rarely been examined as a behavioral procedure for eliminating kinds of behaviors (e.g., noncompliance), a target that is often included in children’s support plans. The present study provides preliminary effects of video modeling on establishing instructional stimulus control over a simple behavior (cleaning up a toy) that required the termination of an ongoing activity. Three children with autism participated, and experimental control was accomplished using a multiple-baseline-across-subjects design. The results showed that this procedure can be effective for children with lower baseline levels of disruptive behaviors and more developed imitation skills. Successful responding generalized across stimuli and subjects and was maintained at a 1-month follow-up assessment. Specific guidelines for building video modeling into real teaching situations are also discussed.
Direct and Collateral Effects of the First Step to Success Program
Jeffrey Sprague and Kindle Perkins
First Step to Success is a multicomponent behavioral program for at-risk children who show signs of antisocial behavior at the point of school entry. The program incorporates behavioral intervention techniques, including praise and feedback, positive reinforcement, social skills training, teacher and parent collaboration, and time-out/response cost. First Step to Success also incorporates techniques to encourage adaptive behavior across the school day and in the home, such as sequential application of the program across the school day, delayed reinforcement at home for school performance, and parent education. This study employed a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate previous research findings on the program. All children improved on measures of problem behavior, academic engaged time, and teacher ratings of behavioral adjustment. The authors extended prior research by assessing the collateral effects of the program on classroom peer and teacher behavior. Positive changes were found for both peer and teacher behavior.
Surveying Professionals’ Views of Positive Behavior Support and Behavior Analysis
Kevin J. Filter, Matt Tincani, and Daniel Fung
Positive behavior support (PBS) is an empirically driven approach to improve quality of life influenced by the science of behavior analysis. Recent discussions have evolved around PBS, behavior analysis, and their relationship within education and human services fields. To date, few data have been offered to guide behaviorally oriented professionals with respect to PBS and behavior analysis as complementary approaches. In this article, the authors surveyed 847 behavioral professionals about their views of PBS and behavior analysis. Results indicate small but consistent differences between those who affiliate exclusively with either PBS or behavior analysis in regards to their ratings of the importance of service delivery methods, values, and research methods. Although statistically significant differences emerged, both groups provided generally favorable ratings for core components of PBS and behavior analysis. Historical analysis of differences and similarities are discussed, as are considerations for future relations between the two groups.
The Teaching-Family Model: A Program Description and Its Effects on the Aggressive Behaviors and Quality of Life of Two Adults With Intellectual Disabilities
Matthieu De Wein and L. Keith Miller
This article is a description of a program that may be effective for reducing the aggressive behaviors of adults with intellectual disabilities. Data are presented in the form of a naturally occurring multiple baseline across two participants. Results suggest that an intervention anchored in teaching-family model (TFM) procedures was effective to reduce the mean value of (a) physical aggression toward people or property and (b) verbal aggression. Quality-of-life data taken before and after participation in TFM indicated that quality of life improved for both participants. Social validity data indicated that parents, teachers, and employers were all highly satisfied with the program procedures and outcomes.