Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 12, Number 3, October 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
A Model for Statewide Evaluation of a Universal Positive Behavior Support Initiative
Karen Elfner Childs, Don Kincaid, and Heather Peshak George
Several statewide evaluations of Tier 1/Universal Level Positive Behavior Support (PBS) implementation efforts have been conducted, adhering to the evaluation template developed by Horner, Sugai, and Lewis-Palmer in 2005. Building on these examples, Florida’s Positive Behavior Support Project developed a comprehensive evaluation system that sought to answer critical questions about building a scalable and sustainable PBS system at the state level that also provides data for decision making at the school and district levels. This article describes Florida’s evaluation system as a model driven by 12 questions, including topics of implementation fidelity as both a dependent and independent variable, and expanding traditional questions of statewide evaluations to include consumer satisfaction, team processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation, and attrition. The data indicated that implementing Tier 1/Universal Level PBS with fidelity was associated with improved student outcomes. Additional findings are described as are considerations for future directions.
Turkish Special Education Teachers’ Reported Use of Positive and Reductive Interventions for Problem Behaviors: An Examination of the Variables Associated With Use
Yasemin Turan, Dilek Erbas, Serife Yucesoy Ozkan, and Burcu Ulke Kurkuoglu
The purpose of this survey study was to determine the following: (a) What strategies do Turkish special education teachers use to address problem behaviors in their classroom? (b) What are teachers’ views with regard to the effectiveness and acceptability of these strategies? (c) Is there a relationship between the use of strategies and teachers’ perceived effectiveness and acceptability? and (d) Are differences among teacher ratings of strategy use, effectiveness, and acceptability associated with teacher characteristics (e.g., area of specialization, years of experience)? Results revealed that Turkish teachers’ views of acceptability and effectiveness of strategies varied; however, in general, their ratings of positive strategies were higher than their ratings of reductive strategies. Results are discussed in the context of current literature, and directions for further research are suggested.
The Social Validity of Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support
Andy J. Frey, Kristy Lee Park, Tricia Browne-Ferrigno, and Tara L. Korfhage
In preschool settings, the majority of interventions are individualized for children at high risk for challenging behavior. However, a few early childhood sites have begun to conceptualize and implement prevention and intervention initiatives modeled after the principles and key features associated with school-wide positive behavior support. In preschool settings, these efforts are referred to as program-wide positive behavior support (PWPBS). This article presents the findings of a descriptive evaluation in which 62 key stakeholders participated in focus group interviews to assess the social validity of a PWPBS initiative in the 1st year of implementation and to provide recommendations for how to improve the implementation effort. Other data sources included teacher surveys and classroom observations related to PWPBS goals and procedures, conducted intentionally to contextualize the social validity data gathered through the interviews. Results suggest that key stakeholders enthusiastically support the goals of the approach; perspectives about the procedures and outcomes varied considerably. Classroom observation and teacher survey data augment the qualitative data. Implications for model conceptualization and technical assistance efforts are discussed.
Supporting Students With Disabilities in the General Education Classroom: The Behavioral Health Assistant Program
S. Lillian Adolphson, Leanne S. Hawken, and Mishele Stein Carroll
This article describes an effective model for employing paraprofessionals to provide behavioral support for students in a general education setting. Behavioral health assistants (BHAs) worked under the supervision of school psychologists and counselors and provided behavioral interventions for students with behavioral goals on their individualized education programs or served a preventive function for students with elevated risk factors who had been referred to multidisciplinary teams due to problem behavior. Descriptive information about the BHA program is provided regarding (a) average numbers of students served; (b) most frequent types of interventions and supports; (c) types of problem behaviors addressed; (d) changes to students’ grades during the period they received services; and (e) the acceptability of the program among school teachers, administrators, BHAs, and other school personnel.
What Happens Next? Follow-Up From the Children’s Toddler School Program
Natacha Akshoomoff, Aubyn C. Stahmer, Christina Corsello, and Nicole E. Mahrer
This study was a follow-up of a group of 29 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at age 2 who attended an inclusive toddler program until age 3. Children ranged in age from 4 to 12 years at the time of the parent survey and follow-up testing.The majority of children were placed in a special education (noninclusive) preschool class, but among the children who were in elementary school at the time of follow-up, 63% were in general education classroom placement. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders remained stable, socialization skills remained a weakness, and child-related parental stress remained high despite average cognitive and language skills in the majority of children. Social skill development and support remained a service need.