Positive Behavior Interventions
Volume 13, Number 4, October 2011
TABLE OF CONTENTS AND ABSTRACTS
The Application of a Three-Tier Model of Intervention to Parent Training
Leah Phaneuf and Laura Lee McIntyre
A three-tier intervention system was designed for use with parents with preschool children with developmental disabilities to modify parent–child interactions. A single-subject changing-conditions design was used to examine the utility of a three-tier intervention system in reducing negative parenting strategies, increasing positive parenting strategies, and reducing child behavior problems in parent–child dyads (n = 8). The three intervention tiers consisted of (a) self-administered reading material, (b) group training, and (c) individualized video feedback sessions. Parental behavior was observed to determine continuation or termination of intervention. Results support the utility of a tiered model of intervention to maximize treatment outcomes and increase efficiency by minimizing the need for more costly time-intensive interventions for participants who may not require them.
Development and Initial Validation of a Measure to Assess Factors Related to Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support
Kent McIntosh, Leslie D. MacKay, Amanda E. Hume, Jennifer Doolittle, Claudia G. Vincent, Robert H. Horner, and Ruth A. Ervin
Sustainability of effective practices in schools is a critical area for research in any domain. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the validity and reliability of a recently developed research instrument designed to evaluate schools’ capacity to sustain school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) efforts at the universal tier. The School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index–School Teams (SUBSIST) was created to assess factors (of the context, implementer practices, and outcomes) that enhance or prevent sustainability of SWPBS. Content of the web-based survey was identified through literature review, and initial validation analyses included ratings of content validity by an expert panel (n = 21) and assessment of internal consistency, test–retest reliability, interrater reliability, and concurrent validity (with SWPBS fidelity of implementation data) through a pilot study (n = 25). Results indicated strong psychometric properties for assessing sustainability. The authors discuss the results in terms of future research in enhancing SWPBS sustainability.
Toward a Conceptual Integration of Cultural Responsiveness and Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support
Claudia G. Vincent, Carla Randall, Gwendolyn Cartledge, Tary J. Tobin, and Jessica Swain-Bradway
Within the context of widely documented racially disproportionate discipline outcomes, we describe schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as one approach that might provide a useful framework for culturally responsive behavior support delivery. We conceptualize cultural and linguistic diversity as the result of a divergence between individual students’ and entire schools’ cultural identities and identify culturally responsive educational practices that might facilitate greater continuity between students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and school environments. Based on practical recommendations derived from the literature, we propose an expansion of the key features of SWPBS implementation (practices, data, systems, and outcomes) to facilitate culturally responsive behavior support delivery. We propose (a) systemically promoting staff members’ cultural knowledge and self-awareness, (b) commitment to culturally relevant and validating student support practices, and (c) culturally valid decision making to enhance culturally equitable student outcomes. We provide recommendations for future research and present the efforts of one school district to blend SWPBS implementation with training in cultural responsiveness.
Using Antecedent Exercise to Decrease Challenging Behavior in Boys With Developmental Disabilities and an Emotional Disorder
Helen I. Cannella-Malone, Christopher A. Tullis, and Aline R. Kazee
Some individuals with developmental disabilities and emotional disorders may engage in challenging behavior that can result in the use of aversive procedures and/or seclusion from typically developing peers. They may also engage in low levels of physical activity. One way to decrease challenging behaviors while increasing overall levels of physical health may be to provide access to exercise systematically throughout the day. This study used a multiple-baseline across-participants design to investigate the effects of antecedent exercise on the challenging behavior of three boys with moderate to severe developmental disabilities and an emotional behavior disorder. Each participant engaged in eight daily exercise sessions ranging in duration from 1 to 20 min throughout the entire school day across school settings. Challenging behavior decreased to zero for two participants and near zero for the third participant.
The Power Card Strategy: Strength-Based Intervention to Increase Direction Following of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abbi Campbell and Matt Tincani
The Power Card strategy is a strength-based intervention to promote social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by capitalizing on their special interests. Although preliminary studies have shown that the Power Card strategy is a promising approach to teach social skills, additional research is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Power Card strategy in teaching direction following to three first-grade students with ASD within a multiple-baseline across participants design. The Power Card strategy was implemented as prescribed by Gagnon (2001), including functional behavioral assessment of students’ problem responses, determination of students’ special interests, reading of the Power Card scenario, and implementation of the Power Card reminder. The Power Card strategy effectively increased two students’ direction following above baseline levels; these gains maintained 8 weeks following withdrawal of the Power Card reminder. For the third student, the Power Card strategy increased direction following; however, the target behavior returned to baseline levels until the Power Card reminder was reintroduced in the last phase of the study. Classroom staff reported that the Power Card strategy was reasonable to implement and effective in promoting social skills. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are described.
Positive Behavior Support for a Child With Inattentive Behavior in a Japanese Regular Classroom
Chiharu Baba and Junko Tanaka-Matsumi
Nondisruptive problem behaviors exist to a large extent in group-oriented Japanese regular classrooms. However, many children remain untreated. We implemented an antecedent-based functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and developed a behavioral support program for a first-grade boy who exhibited inattentive behavior in a Japanese regular classroom. Working collaboratively with the classroom teacher, we assisted the classroom teacher gain whole-class or individual attention before expressing whole-class demands. The child’s behavior improved and the teacher evaluated our behavioral collaboration favorably. We continue to use FBA with other children in Japanese classrooms with teachers as main change agents.